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Solution Concentration

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Solution Concentration

Section 14.2

Concentration - amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solvent

concentrated - a lot of solute

dilute - very little solute

Percent mass = mass of solute x100

mass of solution

Example #1 - In order to maintain a sodium chloride solution similar to ocean water, an aquarium must contain 3.6g of NaCl per 100.0g of water. What is the % mass NaCl of the solution?

Percent mass = mass of solute x100

mass of solution

% = 3.6 g x100

103.6g

= 3.5%

Mass of solute + mass of solvent

Percent (m/v) = mass of solute x100

volume of solution (in mL)

Example #2 – How many grams of solute are needed to prepare 2.00L of 2.00% glucose (m/v)

2.00% = g x100

2000mL

= 40.0 g

x1

Molarity (M) = moles solute

liters of solution

Example #3 - A 100.5 mL intravenous solution contains 5.10g of glucose (C6H12O6). What is the molarity of this solution?

Molarity (M) = moles solute

liters of solution

mol C6H12O6

5.10g C6H12O6

1

x __________

180.16

g C6H12O6

= 0.0283 mol

= .1005 L

100.5 mL

M = 0.0283 mol

0.1005 L

= 0.282 mol/L or M

x3

Example #3 - how would you prepare 2.00L of a 5.0M NaCl solution?

5.0 = mol

2.00 L

= 10. mol

10. mol NaCl

58.443

g NaCl

x __________

1

mol NaCl

= 580 g NaCl

* to make the solution dissolve 584 g of NaCl in enough water to make 2.00 L of solution

x1

Diluting Solutions

- using a concentrated solution to make a diluted solution

M1V1 = M2V2

Example #4 - what volume, in milliliters, of 2.00 M calcium chloride stock solution would you use to make 0.50 L of 0.300M solution?

M1V1 = M2V2

(2.00)(V1) = (.300)(.50)

0.075L

= 75 mL

V1 = (0.300)(0.50L)

(2.00)

V1 = 0.075L