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The American Revolution: 1775-1783 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The American Revolution: 1775-1783. Mr. Pagliaro Seymour High School. On the Eve of the Revolution ?. Loyalist Strongholds. Washington’s Military Headaches. 1/3 colonists favored independence Colony/state loyalties CC couldn’t tax No $ for Continental Army Poor training

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The American Revolution: 1775-1783

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Mr. Pagliaro

Seymour High School

On the Eve of the Revolution ?



Washington’s Military Headaches

  • 1/3 colonists favored independence

  • Colony/state loyalties

  • CC couldn’t tax

    • No $ for Continental Army

  • Poor training

    • Baron von Steuben

Exports & Imports: 1768-1783

Military Strategies

The Americans

The British

  • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].

  • Guerilla tactics [wear the British down]

  • Ally with one of Britain’s enemies.

  • Break the colonies into North & South

  • Blockade

  • “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.

Bunker (Breeds) Hill (June, 1775)

The British suffered over 40% casualties-1000 B, 311 C deathsdeadliest battle

Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]

Phase II:

NY NJ PA[1776-1778]

“These are the times that try men’s souls.”T. Payne, The American Crisis

  • Aug. 1776-Howes to NY

    • 32,000 Redcoats, 10,000 Hessians

      • Amnesty offer: 3,000 accept

    • C.A. = 23,000 untrained volunteers

      • Post-Battle of NY & Long Island-8,000 remain

        • Retreat/Regroup in NJ

          • Dec. 31, enlistments end

In 1778, Robert Sheffield of Stonington, Connecticut-July 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

"The heat was so intense that (the hot sun shining all day on deck) they were all naked…served …to get rid of vermin, but the sick were eaten up alive. Their sickly countenances, and ghastly looks were truly horrible…swearing …blaspheming…stalking about like ghosts…all panting for breath; some dead, and corrupting. The air was so foul that at times a lamp could not be kept burning, by reason of which the bodies were not missed until they had been dead ten days.”

I regret that I have but one life to give for my country…

New York City in Flames(Fall, 1776)


Battle of NY/LI

Loss of NY

Washington’s Retreat

Battle of Trenton



Loss of Philadelphia



Key events of the NY/NJ Campaign

Washington Crossing the Delaware

Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851

Saratoga:“Turning Point” of the War?

After Saratoga, France recognized the USA

Foreign leaders:

Von Steuben-Training Infantry

Marquis de Lafayette-Training Infantry

Comte de Rochambeau-French Army

Expédition Particulière

Admiral DeGrasse-French Navy

Bernardo de Galvez-Raids

Tadeusz Kościuszko-Fortifications

Casimir Pulaski-Calvary

Foreign Support

“Local” Aid

Harsh winter, poor supplies


Baron Von Steuben

Valley Forge

Phase III:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]

Britain’s “Southern Strategy”

  • Led by Cornwallis

  • Rally southern Loyalists

  • Preserve profitable colonies

    • Good US leaders: Nathanial Greene, Francis Marion (the Swamp Fox)

The Battle of Yorktown (1781)

Count de Rochambeau

AdmiralDe Grasse

Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:

“The World Turned Upside Down!”

Painted by John Trumbull, 1797


did the British


North America After theTreaty of Paris, 1783







Federalist vs. Anti-FederalistStrongholds at the End of the War

Weaknesses of theArticles of Confederation

  • unicameral Congress

  • 13 out of 13 to amend

  • Representatives frequently absent

  • Could not tax or raise armies

  • No executive or judicial branches

State Constitutions

  • Republicanism

  • Strong governors with veto power

  • Bicameral legislatures

  • Property required for voting

    • Some had universal white male suffrage.

  • bills of rights

  • Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.

Occupational Composition of Several State Assemblies in the 1780s

Indian Land Cessions:1768-1799

Disputed Territorial ClaimsBetween Spain & the U. S.:1783-1796

State Claims to Western Lands

Land Ordinance of 1785

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  • Major accomplishment of the Confederation Congress!

  • Statehood process:

    • Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory.

    • >5,000 adult, male land ownerselect territorial legislature

    • >60,000elect delegates: state constitutional convention.

The United States in 1787

American trade w/ Britain: 1783-1789

Annapolis Convention (1786)

  • 12 representatives from 5 states[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA]

    • address limited trade and commerce between states

  • Limited representation

  • Reported to congress:

    • Meet in Philadelphia to solve trade issues

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87

  • Daniel Shays

    • Western MA

    • Small farmers angry: debt, taxes

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87

There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders.

George Washington

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