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The American Revolution: 1775-1783. Mr. Pagliaro Seymour High School. On the Eve of the Revolution ?. Loyalist Strongholds. Washington’s Military Headaches. 1/3 colonists favored independence Colony/state loyalties CC couldn’t tax No $ for Continental Army Poor training

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The american revolution 1775 1783

The

American

Revolution:

1775-1783

Mr. Pagliaro

Seymour High School



The american revolution 1775 1783

Loyalist

Strongholds


The american revolution 1775 1783

Washington’s Military Headaches

  • 1/3 colonists favored independence

  • Colony/state loyalties

  • CC couldn’t tax

    • No $ for Continental Army

  • Poor training

    • Baron von Steuben



The american revolution 1775 1783

Military Strategies

The Americans

The British

  • Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].

  • Guerilla tactics [wear the British down]

  • Ally with one of Britain’s enemies.

  • Break the colonies into North & South

  • Blockade

  • “Divide and Conquer”  use the Loyalists.


The american revolution 1775 1783

Bunker (Breeds) Hill (June, 1775)

The British suffered over 40% casualties-1000 B, 311 C deathsdeadliest battle


The american revolution 1775 1783

Phase I:The Northern Campaign[1775-1776]


The american revolution 1775 1783

Phase II:

NY NJ PA[1776-1778]


These are the times that try men s souls t payne the american crisis
“These are the times that try men’s souls.”T. Payne, The American Crisis

  • Aug. 1776-Howes to NY

    • 32,000 Redcoats, 10,000 Hessians

      • Amnesty offer: 3,000 accept

    • C.A. = 23,000 untrained volunteers

      • Post-Battle of NY & Long Island-8,000 remain

        • Retreat/Regroup in NJ

          • Dec. 31, enlistments end


The american revolution 1775 1783

In 1778, Robert Sheffield of Stonington, Connecticut-July 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

"The heat was so intense that (the hot sun shining all day on deck) they were all naked…served …to get rid of vermin, but the sick were eaten up alive. Their sickly countenances, and ghastly looks were truly horrible…swearing …blaspheming…stalking about like ghosts…all panting for breath; some dead, and corrupting. The air was so foul that at times a lamp could not be kept burning, by reason of which the bodies were not missed until they had been dead ten days.”

I regret that I have but one life to give for my country…


The american revolution 1775 1783

New York City in Flames 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners(Fall, 1776)


Key events of the ny nj campaign

1776 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

Battle of NY/LI

Loss of NY

Washington’s Retreat

Battle of Trenton

1777

Princeton

Loss of Philadelphia

Bennington

Saratoga

Key events of the NY/NJ Campaign


The american revolution 1775 1783

Washington Crossing the Delaware 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851


The american revolution 1775 1783

Saratoga: 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners“Turning Point” of the War?


Foreign support

After Saratoga, France recognized the USA 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

Foreign leaders:

Von Steuben-Training Infantry

Marquis de Lafayette-Training Infantry

Comte de Rochambeau-French Army

Expédition Particulière

Admiral DeGrasse-French Navy

Bernardo de Galvez-Raids

Tadeusz Kościuszko-Fortifications

Casimir Pulaski-Calvary

Foreign Support


Local aid
“Local” Aid 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners


Valley forge

Harsh winter, poor supplies 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

Drilling

Baron Von Steuben

Valley Forge


The american revolution 1775 1783

Phase III 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners:The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]


The american revolution 1775 1783

Britain’s “Southern Strategy” 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

  • Led by Cornwallis

  • Rally southern Loyalists

  • Preserve profitable colonies

    • Good US leaders: Nathanial Greene, Francis Marion (the Swamp Fox)


The american revolution 1775 1783

The Battle of Yorktown (1781) 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

Count de Rochambeau

AdmiralDe Grasse


The american revolution 1775 1783

Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

“The World Turned Upside Down!”

Painted by John Trumbull, 1797


The american revolution 1775 1783

Why 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

did the British

Lose???


The american revolution 1775 1783

North America After the 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisonersTreaty of Paris, 1783


The american revolution 1775 1783

Articles 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

of

Confederation

Government:

1781-1789


The american revolution 1775 1783

Wholesale 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisonersPriceIndex:1770-1789


The american revolution 1775 1783

Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisonersStrongholds at the End of the War


The american revolution 1775 1783

Weaknesses of the 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisonersArticles of Confederation

  • unicameral Congress

  • 13 out of 13 to amend

  • Representatives frequently absent

  • Could not tax or raise armies

  • No executive or judicial branches


The american revolution 1775 1783

State Constitutions 10, 1778-1 of 350 prisoners

  • Republicanism

  • Strong governors with veto power

  • Bicameral legislatures

  • Property required for voting

    • Some had universal white male suffrage.

  • bills of rights

  • Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.



The american revolution 1775 1783

Indian Land Cessions: 1780s1768-1799


The american revolution 1775 1783

Disputed Territorial Claims 1780sBetween Spain & the U. S.:1783-1796




The american revolution 1775 1783

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 1780s

  • Major accomplishment of the Confederation Congress!

  • Statehood process:

    • Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory.

    • >5,000 adult, male land ownerselect territorial legislature

    • >60,000elect delegates: state constitutional convention.




The american revolution 1775 1783

Annapolis Convention (1786) 1780s

  • 12 representatives from 5 states[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA]

    • address limited trade and commerce between states

  • Limited representation

  • Reported to congress:

    • Meet in Philadelphia to solve trade issues


The american revolution 1775 1783

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 1780s

  • Daniel Shays

    • Western MA

    • Small farmers angry: debt, taxes



The american revolution 1775 1783

Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87 1780s

There could be no stronger evidence of the want of energy in our governments than these disorders.

George Washington


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