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الليبيدات LIPIDS. تعريف الليبيدات. الليبيدات من المواد الغذائية الرئيسية التي يخزنها الجسم بكميات كبيرة ويعتمد عليها في الحصول على جزء كبير من الطاقة اللازمة للقيام بنشاطه الحيوي المتمثل في بناء الخلايا والحركة وغيرها .

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الليبيدات LIPIDS

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LIPIDS


.

9 .

(Ester linkage)OOC-

R-OH + HOOC-R R-OOC-R

.


Ether Extract .

.

, , ( ) ( )


  • 1- . 9 .

  • 2-

  • 3- .

  • 4-

  • 5-

  • 6- .

  • 7- ( ) .

  • 8-

  • 9-

  • 10-


.


:

.

1- Simple Lipids:

. :

- ( ) Oil & Fats : .

- Wax: ( ) ( ) . .


2- Compound Lipids:

.

- Phospholipids :

( ) ( ).

- Glycolipids:

( ) .

- Lipoprotein :

.

- :

- :


3- Derived Lipids:

. .

:

1- ( Steroids)

2- (Sterols )

3- (Bile Acids)

4- (Hormones )

5- (Carotenoids)


.

:

1-

2- 3

:


+ .

,

.


.

.

:R-COOH

1-

2-

3-

4-


  • :

  • CnH2n+1COOH

  • :

  • Butric:

  • CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH

  • Caproic

  • CH3-(CH2)4-COOH

  • Palmitic:

  • 16 CH3-(CH2)14-COOH

  • :Stearic

  • 18 CH3-(CH2)16-COOH


  • 1- :

  • CnH2n-1COOH

  • C9 C10. :

  • ( )

  • CH3-(CH2)5-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH

  • CH3-(CH2)7-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH

  • 2- :

  • CnH2n-3COOH

  • ,

    C9 C10 C12 C13 .

  • CH3-(CH2)4-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH)


-3 :

CnH2n--5COOH

CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-(CH2)7-COOH)

-4 :

CnH2n--7COOH

(CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH).


  • : .

  • - -

  • :

  • 1-

  • 2-

  • 3-

  • 4- .

  • 5-


  • . IUPAC

  • .

  • ( ) e OIC- anoic))

  • octanoic) ) 8 octane) (octanoic).

  • () enoic) ) ( ) (octadecenoic acid) ) (18) : octadecenoic) ) oleic acid) .

  • =Octa

  • =Deca

  • =en ( )

  • =Oic


  • ( (COOH

  • 1 2 () 3 ((() ( (CH3) ()

  • : ( C) (:) : : C18;1,9

  • : C18:1,9

  • C18:2 9,12

  • (CH3) C .

  • : W9 C18;1


  • 1- Cis

  • -2 trans


  • :

  • - .

  • - .

  • - .

  • 2 6 .

  • 6 .

  • () .

  • 4- :

  • .

  • ( ).

  • 5- .

  • 6- :

  • .


  • 1-

  • ( - )

  • :

  • Saponification:

  • KOH NaOH ,


  • :


  • 2- ()

  • , , ( (Auto oxidation)

  • :

  • 1- :

  • 2- Rancidity

  • ,

  • :

  • 1- ( E )

  • 2-

  • 3-


  • :

  • 1-

  • 2- A,C

  • :

  • 1- Lipase

  • 2-

  • 3-

  • 4-

  • 6- E


3-

+

+ +3

()


  • 4- :

  • R-CH=CH-COOH R-CH2-CH2-COOH

  • R-CH=CH-COOH R-CHCl-CHCl-COOH

    • -

    • -

H2

Ni

Cl2

Ni


II- Waxes

  • ,

  • :


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