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CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration. Documentation. Topics. Why document How to document External documentation Man pages. Why Document. Teaches SAs how to do critical procedures So you can go on vacation. So you can get promoted. Self-help desk

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Cit 470 advanced network and system administration

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration

Documentation

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Topics
Topics

  • Why document

  • How to document

  • External documentation

  • Man pages

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Why document
Why Document

Teaches SAs how to do critical procedures

  • So you can go on vacation.

  • So you can get promoted.

    Self-help desk

  • Let users solve their problems quickly.

  • Requires less time from SAs.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Forms of documentation
Forms of Documentation

Text files and web pages

  • Generic free form text, READMEs, etc.

    Man pages

  • UNIX manual pages for commands, configs, etc.

    FAQs

  • Frequently asked question lists.

    Reference Lists

  • Vendors w/ contact info, serial numbers, employee dir

    Checklists and HOWTOs

  • Step by step description of a procedure.

  • Ex: new hire, installs, OS hardening

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Documentation template
Documentation Template

Title:

  • Simple, short description.

    Metadata:

  • Author with contact information

  • Revision date, history

    What:

  • Description of what the document tells you to do.

    How

  • Step by step description of procedure.

  • Indicate why you’re doing steps where appropriate.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Sources for documentation
Sources for Documentation

Command history

  • Use script command before starting.

  • Use history command after finishing.

    Screen shots

  • Print screen

  • import command to grab windows.

    Email

  • Email conversations may describe commands.

  • Don’t use as documentation; just as a source.

    Request Tickets

  • Problem solutions often documented in notes.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Documentation storage
Documentation Storage

Shared directory

  • README to describe rules and policies.

  • Subdirectories for topics.

  • Text or HTML files in directories.

    Web site

  • Directory shared via web server.

    Content Management System

  • Web-based publishing and collaboration tool.

  • Provides access control, versioning, easy markup.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Wiki

Collaborative web-editing software.

  • Invented by Ward Cunningham in 1995.

  • Wiki is a Hawaiian word for fast.

    Features

  • Edit pages within web browser.

  • Simplified markup language.

  • Version control of pages.

  • Access control limits who can read and/or edit.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Version control
Version Control

  • Allows tracking of history of changes.

  • Can compare different versions.

  • Can revert to older versions in case of bad edits or spam.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Search
Search

Text-based storage

  • grep can search any text files.

  • Indexing programs can provide faster searches for large repositories of text or binary data.

    Binary storage

  • Binary document formats, like those used by word procs, are much harder to search.

  • Often restricted to using creator application’s search capabilities.

    Web search programs can be installed for web.

  • Spider program crawls site to build index.

  • Search program accesses index to find search terms.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Off site links
Off-site Links

Use off-site links to provide documentation.

  • Many references, howtos, FAQs outside org.

    Use anonymizing redirection

  • HTTP Referer header will reveal URL from internal site, which may leak project and people names and other information.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


External documentation
External Documentation

tldp.org: The Linux Documentation Project

  • Man pages

  • FAQs

  • HOWTOs

  • Guides (online books)

    howtoforge.com: Many Linux HOWTOs

  • Mostly OS + server install and configuration.

    ugu.com: UNIX Guru Universe

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Man pages
Man pages

Standard online UNIX documentation.

  • Commands

  • Configuration files

  • Programming interfaces

    Accessible

  • man pagename

  • man section pagename

  • Web-based man pages.

    Searchable

  • man –k keyword

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Man sections
Man sections

  • User commands that anyone can use.

  • System calls (kernel functions.)

  • Library functions for programmers.

  • Devices (hardware interfaces in /dev)

  • File format descriptions (/etc/passwd)

  • Game, graphics demos.

  • Miscellaneous (boot, icmp, url, man-pages)

  • System administration tools for root.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Whichman
whichman

Find matching man pages in all sections.

  • Helps find which section you need.

  • Uses fuzzy matching algorithm.

    $ whichman -0 printf

    /usr/share/man/man1/printf.1.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/printf.3.gz

    $ whichman printf

    /usr/share/man/man1/printafm.1.gz

    /usr/share/man/man1/printf.1.gz

    /usr/share/man/man1/print.1.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/print.3ncurses.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/snprintf.3.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/vdprintf.3.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/vsprintf.3.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/vfprintf.3.gz

    /usr/share/man/man3/wprintf.3.gz

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Man page storage
Man Page Storage

Stored under /usr/share/man

  • Subdirectories for each section.

  • May include language-specific subdirectories.

  • MANPATH environment variable is a :-separated list of paths to search for man pages.

    Man page files

  • Often compressed with gzip.

  • File suffix is a number indicating the section.

  • Written in nroff text-formatting language.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Man page output
Man Page Output

LS(1) User Commands LS(1)

NAME

ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS

ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).

Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options

too.

-a, --all

do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, --almost-all

do not list implied . and ..

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Nroff code for page
nroff code for page

.TH LS "1" "June 2006" "ls 5.97" "User Commands"

.SH NAME

ls \- list directory contents

.SH SYNOPSIS

.B ls

[\fIOPTION\fR]... [\fIFILE\fR]...

.SH DESCRIPTION

.\" Add any additional description here

.PP

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).

Sort entries alphabetically if none of \fB\-cftuvSUX\fR nor \fB\-\-sort\fR.

.PP

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

.TP

\fB\-a\fR, \fB\-\-all\fR

do not ignore entries starting with .

.TP

\fB\-A\fR, \fB\-\-almost\-all\fR

do not list implied . and ..

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


Nroff codes
nroff codes

Title Header: .TH prog mansect cf lf ch

Sections: .SH sectionname

  • NAME is required.

  • Most have: SYNOPSIS, DECRIPTION, OPTIONS, FILES, BUGS, AUTHOR, SEE ALSO

    Paragraphs

  • .PP: new paragraph

  • .TP: index text that comes 2 lines after this macro

  • .NF: pre-formatted text

  • .”: comment line

    Fonts

  • .B: bold (also \fB)

  • .I: italics (also \fI)

  • .R: roman (also \fR)

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


References
References

  • Mark Burgess, Principles of Network and System Administration, 2nd edition, Wiley, 2004.

  • Aeleen Frisch, Essential System Administration, 3rd edition, O’Reilly, 2002.

  • Thomas A. Limoncelli and Christine Hogan, The Practice of System and Network Administration, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 2007.

  • Evi Nemeth et al, UNIX System Administration Handbook, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2001.

CIT 470: Advanced Network and System Administration


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