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“No familiar conceptions can be woven around the electron. Something unknown is doing we don’t know what.” -Sir Arthur Eddington The Nature of the Physical World (1934). The ELECTRON: Wave – Particle Duality. The Dilemma of the Atom.

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The electron wave particle duality

“No familiar conceptions can be woven around the electron. Something unknown is doing we don’t know what.”

-Sir Arthur Eddington

The Nature of the Physical World (1934)

The ELECTRON:Wave – Particle Duality


The dilemma of the atom
The Dilemma of the Atom

  • Electrons outside the nucleus are attracted to the protons in the nucleus

  • Charged particles moving in curved paths lose energy

  • What keeps the atom from collapsing?


Wave particle duality
Wave-Particle Duality

JJ Thomson won the Nobel prize for describing the electron as a particle.

His son, George Thomson won the Nobel prize for describing the wave-like nature of the electron.

The electron is a particle!

The electron is an energy wave!


The wave like electron
The Wave-like Electron

The electron propagates through space as an energy wave. To understand the atom, one must understand the behavior of electromagnetic waves.

Louis deBroglie


Electromagnetic radiation propagates through space as a wave moving at the speed of light
Electromagnetic radiation propagates through space as a wave moving at the speed of light.

c = 

c = speed of light, a constant (3.00 x 108 m/s)

 = frequency, in units of hertz (hz, sec-1)

 = wavelength, in meters


The energy ( moving at the speed of light.E ) of electromagnetic radiation is directly proportional to the frequency () of the radiation.

E = h

E= Energy, in units of Joules (kg·m2/s2)

h= Planck’s constant (6.626 x 10-34 J·s)

= frequency, in units of hertz (hz, sec-1)


Wavelength table

Long moving at the speed of light.

Wavelength

=

Low Frequency

=

Low ENERGY

Wavelength Table

Short

Wavelength

=

High Frequency

=

High ENERGY


Answering the dilemma of the atom
Answering the Dilemma of the Atom moving at the speed of light.

  • Treat electrons as waves

  • As the electron moves toward the nucleus, the wavelength shortens

  • Shorter wavelength = higher energy

  • Higher energy = greater distance from the nucleus


The electromagnetic spectrum
The Electromagnetic Spectrum moving at the speed of light.


Electron transitions involve jumps of definite amounts of energy
Electron transitions moving at the speed of light.involve jumps of definite amounts ofenergy.

This produces bands

of light with definite wavelengths.


Spectroscopic analysis of the hydrogen spectrum
Spectroscopic analysis of the hydrogen spectrum… moving at the speed of light.

…produces a “bright line” spectrum


Flame tests
Flame Tests moving at the speed of light.

Many elements give off characteristic light which can be used to help identify them.

strontium

sodium

lithium

potassium

copper


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