Multicultural awareness
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Multicultural Awareness. Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students. Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools.

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Multicultural awareness

Multicultural Awareness

Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes

&

APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students


Multicultural awareness

Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools

ROGERS, INGRAHAM, BURSZTYN, CAJIGAS-SEGREDO, ESQUIVEL, HESS, NAHARI, and LOPEZ


Six major domains of service delivery

Six Major Domains of Service Delivery

  • Legal and Ethical Issues

  • School Culture, Educational Policy and Institutional Advocacy

  • Psychoeducational Assessment and Related Issues

  • Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions

  • Working with Interpreters

  • Research


Legal and ethical issues

Legal and Ethical Issues

  • Know the legal precedents and case law.

  • Know legislation that protects civil rights

  • Know about immigration laws, residency, citizenship, and migrant families.

  • Know legislation and litigation regarding bilingual education and (ESL) and the effectiveness of bilingual education/ ESL

  • Are advocates for culturally diverse youths

  • Know to provide school-based services that will positively impact student growth.


Meyer v nebraska 1923

Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • It is the parent’s duty to educate their child.

  •  It is a violation of the 14th Amendment to forbid the teaching of foreign language in the school.


Brown v board of education 1954

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • Racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional.

  • Rights to students are embedded in due process and equal protection under 14th Amendment


Hobson v hansen 1967

Hobson v. Hansen (1967)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • Schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race or socio-economic status

  • “de facto segregation by race and class, it should be clear that if whites and Negroes, or rich and poor, are to be consigned to separate schools … the minimum the Constitution will require and guarantee is that for their objectively measurable aspects these schools be run on the basis of real equality”


Mills v district of columbia 1971

Mills v. District of Columbia (1971)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • All children are to be provided publicly-supported, alternative educational services if necessary for them to be educated.

  • Though all seven children were African American, this case represented all children with disabilities, not just minority children with disabilities


Guadalupe v tempe 1978

Guadalupe v. Tempe (1978)

  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit

  • Schools must provide bilingual-bicultural education to students based on rights give in the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Education Opportunity Act.

  • Only applied to 9th Circuit area schools (because is not a Supreme Court decision)


Johnson v san francisco 1971

Johnson v San Francisco (1971)

  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit

  • Schools are prohibited from planned segregation of minority students as well as acts resulting in unplanned segregation.

  • de jure segregation:not statutorily but manipulation of student attendance zones, school site selection and a neighborhood school policy, created or maintained racially or ethnically


Lau v nichols 1974

Lau v. Nichols (1974)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • Children must receive instruction in their primary language if they cannot meaningfully participate in an English-only classroom.

  • “students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.”


Diana v state board of education 1970

Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)

  • Diana addressed overrepresentation of non-English speaking students in M.R. classrooms.

  • When first tested, her I.Q. (in English-only) was 30.

  • When re-tested, her I.Q. (in her native language) was 80.

  • Result: Testing must be done in the child’s native language.


Aspira v board of education 1976

Aspira v Board of Education (1976)

  • U.S. District Court: Southern District Of New York Court Decision

  • Hispanic students and their parents are entitled to bilingual education of some sort when needed for the child to be educated.

  • Lau v. Nichols provided these rights and the Board of Education in New York was found in contempt for not following through.


Hudson v rowley 1982

Hudson v. Rowley (1982)

  • Supreme Court Decision

  • States need not provide additional services above and beyond those needed to adequately meet the child’s educational needs.

  • Sign-language interpreter not to be provided for a deaf student who is receiving an adequate education (based on school records) to meet her educational needs


Larry p v wilson riles 1987

Larry P. v. Wilson Riles (1987)

  • 9th Circuit Court of Appeals

  • 15 years to resolve

  • Moratorium placed that all IQ testing for purposes of placement was not allowed. Moratorium was lifted on all but testing for mental retardation.

  • IQ tests cannot be used in California to place children in classes for mental retardation because of perceived racial discrimination on the tests.


Plyler vs doe 1982

Plyler vs. Doe (1982)

  • Prohibit public schools from denying FAPE to a child regardless of immigrant status.

  • Undocumented students are required to attend school.

  • Schools are PROHIBITED from communicating with INS without a court order/ subpoena.


History parent s rights

History: Parent’s Rights

  • Before legislation & litigation many schools forbid students with disabilities from attending

  • Most early attempts to educate disabled children were from White parents, minority parents were still trying to get an equal education for their children.

  • Parental advocacy for their children took place in the form of litigation and lobbying


History minority parents

History: Minority Parents

  • Prior to desegregation, minority families were considered active in their children’s schools. Many felt unwelcome in their child’s new schools.

  • Minority parents advocated for their children to receive an equal education by arguing against segregation (intentional and de jure).

  • Many felt that this segregation continued by the overrepresentation of their children in SPED placement


Group project nasp ethics

Group Project: NASP Ethics

  • Go to the ethics section of the NASP website.

    • http://nasponline.org/standards/2010standards.aspx

    • As a group, determine which ethical guidelines are described that specifically apply to school psychologists.

  • Be prepared to present these to the class.


School culture educational policy institutional advocacy

School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy

  • Take a proactive stance to enhance the quality of services provided to all individuals

  • Work toward increasing institutional understanding and acceptance of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals

  • Inform and educate school staff about cultural and behavioral patterns of culturally and linguistically diverse populations

  • Families need to be informed of their rights and are meaningfully engaged in the discussions affecting their children.


School culture educational policy institutional advocacy1

School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy

  • Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how ethnically diverse students are treated at that school.

  • Rule out systematic factors as the cause of problems before doing an evaluation or intervention directly with the student.

  • Provide interventions to help schools that inappropriately identify diverse students.

  • Help develop primary interventions to aid all learners in the school.

  • Help link diverse families to the school.


Psychoeducational assessment related issues

Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues

  • Assessment is a comprehensive process which

    • impact of socio-cultural, environmental, political, experiential and language-based factors

    • may or may not include standardized testing

  • Consider cultural sources of information about students and search for culture specific confirming data.

  • Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional development


Psychoeducational assessment related issues1

Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues

  • Psychologists have expertise in conducting informal and formal language assessments and in differentiating a language disorder from second language acquisition

  • Psychologists have expertise in assessing the student’s biculturalism

  • Psychologists incorporate cultural and linguistic information in written reports


Psychoeducational assessment related issues2

Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues

  • Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.

  • Well versed in the psychometric properties of all instruments that they use.

  • Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.

  • Keep abreast of new an better versions of tests devised for diverse students.


Academic therapeutic and consultative interventions

Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions

  • Know research regarding the impact of cultural, ethnic and linguistic factors on the academic achievement of diverse students

  • Understand the needs of diverse children in terms of curriculum and instruction.

  • Develop expertise in multicultural counseling.

  • Demonstrate an awareness of an individual’s worldviews and sociopolitical experiences including the negative effects of racism, oppression and stereotyping.


Academic therapeutic and consultative interventions1

Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions

  • Consider involvement of trained interpreters, community consultants, extended family members.

  • Implement culturally sensitive approaches that are researched and acceptable to the child or family

  • Demonstrate culturally sensitive verbal and nonverbal communication skills.

  • Aware of own cultural background and biases

  • Knowledge of minority family structures, hierarchies, values and beliefs.


Academic therapeutic and consultative interventions2

Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions

  • Understand relocation and migration and its effect on children and families.

  • Understand the process of acquiring a second culture and its impact on the development and adjustment.

  • Understand the impact of poverty on physical and mental health.

  • Aware of different responses to interventions

  • Understand the specific coping skills and support systems available to culturally diverse children and families.


Working with interpreters

Working with Interpreters

  • Psychologists seek the services of interpreters only when necessary and when other alternatives have been sought out but are not available.

  • Work with trained interpreters familiar with the student’s culture and regional area of origin.

  • Know how to train interpreters when needed.

  • Knowledge of the skills needed by qualified interpreters

  • Aware of problems inherent in the process of translation.


Working with interpreters1

Working with Interpreters

  • Knowledge of the psychological impact of using interpreters during assessment and intervention activities.

  • Knowledge and skills in interviewing and assessing individuals through interpreters.

  • Examine data obtained through interpreters with extreme caution and acknowledge the limitations of such data.

  • Assessment results obtained through interpreters are described as such and are reported qualitatively.


Research

Research

  • Informed about quantitative and qualitative research techniques.

  • Consider the social, linguistic and cultural context in which research takes place

  • Psychologists work to eliminate bias when conducting research.


Research1

Research

  • Insure that the informed consent of all research participants is secured and has been elicited in the language the family is most comfortable with.

  • Skilled in program evaluation to determine the appropriateness and adequacy of instructional programs specifically aimed at diverse youngsters.


Cultural definitions vs stereotypes

Cultural Definitions Vs. Stereotypes


Stereotypes

Stereotypes

  • Stereotypes are considered to be

    • Group concept of one social group about another

    • Often used in a negative or prejudicial sense

    • Frequently used to justify discriminatory behavior.

    • May express “folk wisdom” about social reality.

  • Stereotype production is based on:

    • Simplification

    • Exaggeration or distortion

    • Generalization

    • Presentation of cultural attributes as being 'natural'.

Wikipedia, 2006


Cultural definitions

Cultural Definitions

  • Should be scientifically based.

  • Represent many (but probably not all).

  • Provide a general idea of a culture

    • History

    • Beliefs

    • Daily Lives

    • Norms

  • Are objectively determined and reported (neither positive or negative)


Psychs need to know

Psychs Need to Know…

  • How families are organized in different cultures.

  • Educational systems in other locations.

  • What recent events may cause distress in a child or family.

  • Languages spoken by the child.

  • Gestures, greetings, etc.

  • Views toward healthcare or psych services.

  • Anything else on Div. 16 Guidelines


Culturegrams

CultureGrams

  • You can get much of the information that you need from Culture Grams (www.culturegrams.com).

  • At UNLV we access Culture Grams by:

    http://www.library.unlv.edu/search/eralpha.php#C

  • Note: Not all that you need to know can be accessed here. Sometimes you will need alternate sources.

    • Natives from that Country

    • Current Newspapers

    • Literature Reviews, etc.


Discussion project culturegrams

Scenario 1:

You have a female child from Peru

Scenario 2:

You have a male child from Saudi Arabia

Scenario 3:

You have a female child from Canada

Scenario 4:

You have a male child from Chad

Discussion Project: CultureGrams

Use at least one of these scenarios to discuss information

on CultureGrams in terms of psychological, family, and

educational issues.


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