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Multicultural Awareness. Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students. Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools.

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multicultural awareness

Multicultural Awareness

Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes

&

APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students

slide2

Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools

ROGERS, INGRAHAM, BURSZTYN, CAJIGAS-SEGREDO, ESQUIVEL, HESS, NAHARI, and LOPEZ

six major domains of service delivery
Six Major Domains of Service Delivery
  • Legal and Ethical Issues
  • School Culture, Educational Policy and Institutional Advocacy
  • Psychoeducational Assessment and Related Issues
  • Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Working with Interpreters
  • Research
legal and ethical issues
Legal and Ethical Issues
  • Know the legal precedents and case law.
  • Know legislation that protects civil rights
  • Know about immigration laws, residency, citizenship, and migrant families.
  • Know legislation and litigation regarding bilingual education and (ESL) and the effectiveness of bilingual education/ ESL
  • Are advocates for culturally diverse youths
  • Know to provide school-based services that will positively impact student growth.
meyer v nebraska 1923
Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • It is the parent’s duty to educate their child.
  •  It is a violation of the 14th Amendment to forbid the teaching of foreign language in the school.
brown v board of education 1954
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional.
  • Rights to students are embedded in due process and equal protection under 14th Amendment
hobson v hansen 1967
Hobson v. Hansen (1967)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race or socio-economic status
  • “de facto segregation by race and class, it should be clear that if whites and Negroes, or rich and poor, are to be consigned to separate schools … the minimum the Constitution will require and guarantee is that for their objectively measurable aspects these schools be run on the basis of real equality”
mills v district of columbia 1971
Mills v. District of Columbia (1971)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • All children are to be provided publicly-supported, alternative educational services if necessary for them to be educated.
  • Though all seven children were African American, this case represented all children with disabilities, not just minority children with disabilities
guadalupe v tempe 1978
Guadalupe v. Tempe (1978)
  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit
  • Schools must provide bilingual-bicultural education to students based on rights give in the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Education Opportunity Act.
  • Only applied to 9th Circuit area schools (because is not a Supreme Court decision)
johnson v san francisco 1971
Johnson v San Francisco (1971)
  • U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9th Circuit
  • Schools are prohibited from planned segregation of minority students as well as acts resulting in unplanned segregation.
  • de jure segregation:not statutorily but manipulation of student attendance zones, school site selection and a neighborhood school policy, created or maintained racially or ethnically
lau v nichols 1974
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • Children must receive instruction in their primary language if they cannot meaningfully participate in an English-only classroom.
  • “students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.”
diana v state board of education 1970
Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
  • Diana addressed overrepresentation of non-English speaking students in M.R. classrooms.
  • When first tested, her I.Q. (in English-only) was 30.
  • When re-tested, her I.Q. (in her native language) was 80.
  • Result: Testing must be done in the child’s native language.
aspira v board of education 1976
Aspira v Board of Education (1976)
  • U.S. District Court: Southern District Of New York Court Decision
  • Hispanic students and their parents are entitled to bilingual education of some sort when needed for the child to be educated.
  • Lau v. Nichols provided these rights and the Board of Education in New York was found in contempt for not following through.
hudson v rowley 1982
Hudson v. Rowley (1982)
  • Supreme Court Decision
  • States need not provide additional services above and beyond those needed to adequately meet the child’s educational needs.
  • Sign-language interpreter not to be provided for a deaf student who is receiving an adequate education (based on school records) to meet her educational needs
larry p v wilson riles 1987
Larry P. v. Wilson Riles (1987)
  • 9th Circuit Court of Appeals
  • 15 years to resolve
  • Moratorium placed that all IQ testing for purposes of placement was not allowed. Moratorium was lifted on all but testing for mental retardation.
  • IQ tests cannot be used in California to place children in classes for mental retardation because of perceived racial discrimination on the tests.
plyler vs doe 1982
Plyler vs. Doe (1982)
  • Prohibit public schools from denying FAPE to a child regardless of immigrant status.
  • Undocumented students are required to attend school.
  • Schools are PROHIBITED from communicating with INS without a court order/ subpoena.
history parent s rights
History: Parent’s Rights
  • Before legislation & litigation many schools forbid students with disabilities from attending
  • Most early attempts to educate disabled children were from White parents, minority parents were still trying to get an equal education for their children.
  • Parental advocacy for their children took place in the form of litigation and lobbying
history minority parents
History: Minority Parents
  • Prior to desegregation, minority families were considered active in their children’s schools. Many felt unwelcome in their child’s new schools.
  • Minority parents advocated for their children to receive an equal education by arguing against segregation (intentional and de jure).
  • Many felt that this segregation continued by the overrepresentation of their children in SPED placement
group project nasp ethics
Group Project: NASP Ethics
  • Go to the ethics section of the NASP website.
    • http://nasponline.org/standards/2010standards.aspx
    • As a group, determine which ethical guidelines are described that specifically apply to school psychologists.
  • Be prepared to present these to the class.
school culture educational policy institutional advocacy
School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy
  • Take a proactive stance to enhance the quality of services provided to all individuals
  • Work toward increasing institutional understanding and acceptance of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals
  • Inform and educate school staff about cultural and behavioral patterns of culturally and linguistically diverse populations
  • Families need to be informed of their rights and are meaningfully engaged in the discussions affecting their children.
school culture educational policy institutional advocacy1
School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy
  • Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how ethnically diverse students are treated at that school.
  • Rule out systematic factors as the cause of problems before doing an evaluation or intervention directly with the student.
  • Provide interventions to help schools that inappropriately identify diverse students.
  • Help develop primary interventions to aid all learners in the school.
  • Help link diverse families to the school.
psychoeducational assessment related issues
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Assessment is a comprehensive process which
    • impact of socio-cultural, environmental, political, experiential and language-based factors
    • may or may not include standardized testing
  • Consider cultural sources of information about students and search for culture specific confirming data.
  • Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional development
psychoeducational assessment related issues1
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Psychologists have expertise in conducting informal and formal language assessments and in differentiating a language disorder from second language acquisition
  • Psychologists have expertise in assessing the student’s biculturalism
  • Psychologists incorporate cultural and linguistic information in written reports
psychoeducational assessment related issues2
Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues
  • Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.
  • Well versed in the psychometric properties of all instruments that they use.
  • Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.
  • Keep abreast of new an better versions of tests devised for diverse students.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Know research regarding the impact of cultural, ethnic and linguistic factors on the academic achievement of diverse students
  • Understand the needs of diverse children in terms of curriculum and instruction.
  • Develop expertise in multicultural counseling.
  • Demonstrate an awareness of an individual’s worldviews and sociopolitical experiences including the negative effects of racism, oppression and stereotyping.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions1
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Consider involvement of trained interpreters, community consultants, extended family members.
  • Implement culturally sensitive approaches that are researched and acceptable to the child or family
  • Demonstrate culturally sensitive verbal and nonverbal communication skills.
  • Aware of own cultural background and biases
  • Knowledge of minority family structures, hierarchies, values and beliefs.
academic therapeutic and consultative interventions2
Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions
  • Understand relocation and migration and its effect on children and families.
  • Understand the process of acquiring a second culture and its impact on the development and adjustment.
  • Understand the impact of poverty on physical and mental health.
  • Aware of different responses to interventions
  • Understand the specific coping skills and support systems available to culturally diverse children and families.
working with interpreters
Working with Interpreters
  • Psychologists seek the services of interpreters only when necessary and when other alternatives have been sought out but are not available.
  • Work with trained interpreters familiar with the student’s culture and regional area of origin.
  • Know how to train interpreters when needed.
  • Knowledge of the skills needed by qualified interpreters
  • Aware of problems inherent in the process of translation.
working with interpreters1
Working with Interpreters
  • Knowledge of the psychological impact of using interpreters during assessment and intervention activities.
  • Knowledge and skills in interviewing and assessing individuals through interpreters.
  • Examine data obtained through interpreters with extreme caution and acknowledge the limitations of such data.
  • Assessment results obtained through interpreters are described as such and are reported qualitatively.
research
Research
  • Informed about quantitative and qualitative research techniques.
  • Consider the social, linguistic and cultural context in which research takes place
  • Psychologists work to eliminate bias when conducting research.
research1
Research
  • Insure that the informed consent of all research participants is secured and has been elicited in the language the family is most comfortable with.
  • Skilled in program evaluation to determine the appropriateness and adequacy of instructional programs specifically aimed at diverse youngsters.
stereotypes
Stereotypes
  • Stereotypes are considered to be
    • Group concept of one social group about another
    • Often used in a negative or prejudicial sense
    • Frequently used to justify discriminatory behavior.
    • May express “folk wisdom” about social reality.
  • Stereotype production is based on:
    • Simplification
    • Exaggeration or distortion
    • Generalization
    • Presentation of cultural attributes as being \'natural\'.

Wikipedia, 2006

cultural definitions
Cultural Definitions
  • Should be scientifically based.
  • Represent many (but probably not all).
  • Provide a general idea of a culture
    • History
    • Beliefs
    • Daily Lives
    • Norms
  • Are objectively determined and reported (neither positive or negative)
psychs need to know
Psychs Need to Know…
  • How families are organized in different cultures.
  • Educational systems in other locations.
  • What recent events may cause distress in a child or family.
  • Languages spoken by the child.
  • Gestures, greetings, etc.
  • Views toward healthcare or psych services.
  • Anything else on Div. 16 Guidelines
culturegrams
CultureGrams
  • You can get much of the information that you need from Culture Grams (www.culturegrams.com).
  • At UNLV we access Culture Grams by:

http://www.library.unlv.edu/search/eralpha.php#C

  • Note: Not all that you need to know can be accessed here. Sometimes you will need alternate sources.
    • Natives from that Country
    • Current Newspapers
    • Literature Reviews, etc.
discussion project culturegrams
Scenario 1:

You have a female child from Peru

Scenario 2:

You have a male child from Saudi Arabia

Scenario 3:

You have a female child from Canada

Scenario 4:

You have a male child from Chad

Discussion Project: CultureGrams

Use at least one of these scenarios to discuss information

on CultureGrams in terms of psychological, family, and

educational issues.

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