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Music Appreciation MUSI 115. Class #3 The Baroque, part 2 CD #1, Tracks 9 and 10. Georg Philipp Telemann. 1681-1767. Biographical facts. Self-taught Perhaps the most prolific* composer of all More respected than Bach at the time Innovative composer

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Music appreciation musi 115

Music AppreciationMUSI 115

Class #3

The Baroque, part 2

CD #1, Tracks 9 and 10



Biographical facts
Biographical facts

  • Self-taught

  • Perhaps the most prolific* composer of all

  • More respected than Bach at the time

  • Innovative composer

    • Concerti* for unusual combinations of insturments


Tvw numbers
TVW numbers

  • Telemann-Werke-Verzeichnis*


Trumpet concerto cd 1 track 9
Trumpet Concerto, CD #1, Track 9

  • Listen for…

    • Rhythm* is steady and predictable

    • Virtuoso* soloists

      • Extended breath phrases

      • Mordents* and trills*



Limitations and advantages
Limitations and Advantages

  • Only 12 notes

  • Difficult to play in tune

  • Difficult to play consistently

  • Warm, rich sound


Modern trumpet b flat trumpet
Modern Trumpet (B-flat trumpet)


Limitations and advantages1
Limitations and Advantages

  • Over two octave* range

  • Precise intonation*

  • Fairly easy to learn

  • Harsh, thin sound


Johann sebastian bach

Johann Sebastian Bach

Baroque Master



Johann sebastian bach 1685 17501
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)

  • German Composer, Organist, Educator

  • Culminating figure of the Baroque style

  • Career in Northern Germany

  • Musical family

  • Organist and composer

  • Devout Lutheran

  • Secular and church patrons during career


Personality
Personality

  • 20 children!

  • Only five major appointments.

  • Musical goals and objectives?

  • Work ethic.


Js bach society web sites
JS Bach Society Web Sites

  • http://www.jsbach.org/

  • http://www.baroquemusic.org/bqxjsbach.html


Examples of contrapuntal music
Examples of Contrapuntal* Music

  • Little Fugue in G minor*

    • Mühlausen

    • 31 years old

    • Pietist



The fugue and its devices
The Fugue and Its Devices

  • Fuga

  • Contrapuntal, based on imitation

  • Subject unifies the work

  • Choral or instrumental

  • Melodic lines are referred to as voices


Contrapuntal devices
Contrapuntal* devices

  • Inversion*

  • Retrograde*

  • Augmentation*

  • Diminution*

    • Combinations


Jail!

  • Much-desired position of Kapellmeister* in Weimar

    • Coffeehouse crowd

    • Subordination


Well tempered clavier books 1 2
Well-Tempered Clavier*, Books 1&2

  • Intended as only instructional and experimental pieces

  • Dedication

    • “for the use and profit of young musicians”


The well tempered clavier books 1 2
The Well-Tempered Clavier*, Books 1 & 2

  • New technique!

    • Equal temperament = tuning

  • Two pieces each in every new 24 Major and Minor keys

    • 24 X 2 = 48 per book

  • Glenn Gould


Bach and the sacred cantata
Bach and the Sacred Cantata

  • Sacred cantatas

  • Composed for the Lutheran church

  • Multi-movement works

  • One unifying theme


The lutheran chorale
The Lutheran Chorale

  • Battle hymns of the Reformation

  • Early hymns: in unison

  • Later hymns: 4-part harmony, soprano melody

  • Unifying thread of the Protestant cantatas*


Typical work week
Typical Work Week

  • Monday

    • Meeting with clergy

  • Tuesday

    • Composing, teaching

  • Wednesday

    • Church services 2-4 hours

  • Thursday

    • First rehearsal

  • Friday

    • Editing, rehearsing

  • Saturday

    • Final dress rehearsal

  • Sunday

    • 6-8 hours in church


Typical sunday services
Typical Sunday Services

  • 7 AM

    • Motet*, hymns*, organ solo.

  • 8 AM

    • Cantata* and/or Chorale*

  • 9 AM

    • Sermon, at least one hour

  • 10 AM – 12 Noon

    • Cantata* and/or Chorale*, Communion*


Weekday services
Weekday Services

  • Daily Church

    • 6 AM

  • Hospitals

  • Jails

  • Funerals

  • Special events


Additional duties
Additional Duties

  • Church

  • Teaching

    • 9 AM – Noon

      • Latin, singing, composition

  • University collegiummusicum*


Sacred vocal music
Sacred Vocal Music

  • Over 200 church cantatas*

  • Four Passions*

  • One Catholic Mass

    • Why?


Bach s cantatas
Bach’s Cantatas *

  • Typically have 5–8 movements

  • Many movements based on chorale* tune

  • Several choral* numbers

  • Solos

    recitatives *

    arias *


Ein feste burg
EinFeste Burg*

A mighty fortress is our God, a bulwark never failing;Our helper He, amid the flood of mortal ills prevailing:For still our ancient foe doth seek to work us woe;His craft and power are great, and, armed with cruel hate,On earth is not his equal.


Martin luther a mighty fortress is our god
Martin Luther* A Mighty Fortress Is Our God*


Cantata no 80 a mighty fortress is our god no 8
Cantata No. 80, A Mighty Fortress Is Our God, No. 8


Bach chorale prelude on a mighty fortress is our god
Bach: Chorale prelude on A Mighty Fortress Is Our God*

  • Composed 140-plus organ chorales*

  • Organ with three keyboards and a pedal keyboard

  • Based on chorale tune Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott

  • Varied texture


J s bach and the late baroque concerto
J. S. Bach and the Late Baroque Concerto*

  • Cöthen period (1717–23)

  • Instrumental chamber works

  • Margrave Christian of Brandenburg*


But first
But first….

  • Why was Bach in Berlin?


Brandenburg concertos 1721 bwv 1046 1051
Brandenburg Concertos* 1721, BWV 1046–1051

Three movements each:

  • I: Allegro,

    • ritornello form, contrapuntal

  • II: Andante,

    • Slower, quieter, continuous imitation

  • III: Allegroassai,

    • four-voiced fugue


Brandenburg concerto 1
Brandenburg Concerto* #1

  • 1st Movement

  • 2nd Movement

  • 3rd Movement


Cello suite 1
Cello Suite* #1

  • Yo-Yo Ma playing the Prelude (MTV-ish)

  • Yo-Yo Ma playing the Sarabande


The goldberg variations 1741 bwv 988
The Goldberg Variations*, 1741, BWV 988

  • 30 variations

  • Harpsichord

    • Count Kaiserling

    • Johann Gottlieb Goldberg

      You know how I feel about Wikipedia, but….


Contrapuntal master
Contrapuntal Master

  • Musical Offering* (1747)

    • 'Gentlemen, old Bach is here'

  • The Art of Fugue *

    • Incomplete

    • Encyclopedia of counterpoint

    • Methodical predictability


Air on the g string
Air On The G String*

  • CD #1, track 10

  • Air* = aria* or song

  • Played on one string only, the last (or G) string


Transpositions
Transpositions

  • German violinist August Wilhelmj (1845 – 1908)

  • Almost every instrument and vocalist

    • Julian Lloyd Webber with piano


Listen for
Listen for…

  • Steady, predictable rhythm*

  • Sustained melody*

  • Intertwining voices between the string and keyboard


Bwv numbers
BWV Numbers*

  • Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis

    • Bach – Works – Numbers

  • Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-1990)

  • Genre listing

    • Choral

    • Organ

    • Other keyboard


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