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Music Appreciation MUSI 115. Class #3 The Baroque, part 2 CD #1, Tracks 9 and 10. Georg Philipp Telemann. 1681-1767. Biographical facts. Self-taught Perhaps the most prolific* composer of all More respected than Bach at the time Innovative composer

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music appreciation musi 115

Music AppreciationMUSI 115

Class #3

The Baroque, part 2

CD #1, Tracks 9 and 10

biographical facts
Biographical facts
  • Self-taught
  • Perhaps the most prolific* composer of all
  • More respected than Bach at the time
  • Innovative composer
    • Concerti* for unusual combinations of insturments
tvw numbers
TVW numbers
  • Telemann-Werke-Verzeichnis*
trumpet concerto cd 1 track 9
Trumpet Concerto, CD #1, Track 9
  • Listen for…
    • Rhythm* is steady and predictable
    • Virtuoso* soloists
      • Extended breath phrases
      • Mordents* and trills*
limitations and advantages
Limitations and Advantages
  • Only 12 notes
  • Difficult to play in tune
  • Difficult to play consistently
  • Warm, rich sound
limitations and advantages1
Limitations and Advantages
  • Over two octave* range
  • Precise intonation*
  • Fairly easy to learn
  • Harsh, thin sound
johann sebastian bach 1685 17501
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
  • German Composer, Organist, Educator
  • Culminating figure of the Baroque style
  • Career in Northern Germany
  • Musical family
  • Organist and composer
  • Devout Lutheran
  • Secular and church patrons during career
personality
Personality
  • 20 children!
  • Only five major appointments.
  • Musical goals and objectives?
  • Work ethic.
js bach society web sites
JS Bach Society Web Sites
  • http://www.jsbach.org/
  • http://www.baroquemusic.org/bqxjsbach.html
examples of contrapuntal music
Examples of Contrapuntal* Music
  • Little Fugue in G minor*
    • Mühlausen
    • 31 years old
    • Pietist
the fugue and its devices
The Fugue and Its Devices
  • Fuga
  • Contrapuntal, based on imitation
  • Subject unifies the work
  • Choral or instrumental
  • Melodic lines are referred to as voices
contrapuntal devices
Contrapuntal* devices
  • Inversion*
  • Retrograde*
  • Augmentation*
  • Diminution*
    • Combinations
slide19
Jail!
  • Much-desired position of Kapellmeister* in Weimar
    • Coffeehouse crowd
    • Subordination
well tempered clavier books 1 2
Well-Tempered Clavier*, Books 1&2
  • Intended as only instructional and experimental pieces
  • Dedication
    • “for the use and profit of young musicians”
the well tempered clavier books 1 2
The Well-Tempered Clavier*, Books 1 & 2
  • New technique!
    • Equal temperament = tuning
  • Two pieces each in every new 24 Major and Minor keys
    • 24 X 2 = 48 per book
  • Glenn Gould
bach and the sacred cantata
Bach and the Sacred Cantata
  • Sacred cantatas
  • Composed for the Lutheran church
  • Multi-movement works
  • One unifying theme
the lutheran chorale
The Lutheran Chorale
  • Battle hymns of the Reformation
  • Early hymns: in unison
  • Later hymns: 4-part harmony, soprano melody
  • Unifying thread of the Protestant cantatas*
typical work week
Typical Work Week
  • Monday
    • Meeting with clergy
  • Tuesday
    • Composing, teaching
  • Wednesday
    • Church services 2-4 hours
  • Thursday
    • First rehearsal
  • Friday
    • Editing, rehearsing
  • Saturday
    • Final dress rehearsal
  • Sunday
    • 6-8 hours in church
typical sunday services
Typical Sunday Services
  • 7 AM
    • Motet*, hymns*, organ solo.
  • 8 AM
    • Cantata* and/or Chorale*
  • 9 AM
    • Sermon, at least one hour
  • 10 AM – 12 Noon
    • Cantata* and/or Chorale*, Communion*
weekday services
Weekday Services
  • Daily Church
    • 6 AM
  • Hospitals
  • Jails
  • Funerals
  • Special events
additional duties
Additional Duties
  • Church
  • Teaching
    • 9 AM – Noon
      • Latin, singing, composition
  • University collegiummusicum*
sacred vocal music
Sacred Vocal Music
  • Over 200 church cantatas*
  • Four Passions*
  • One Catholic Mass
    • Why?
bach s cantatas
Bach’s Cantatas *
  • Typically have 5–8 movements
  • Many movements based on chorale* tune
  • Several choral* numbers
  • Solos

recitatives *

arias *

ein feste burg
EinFeste Burg*

A mighty fortress is our God, a bulwark never failing;Our helper He, amid the flood of mortal ills prevailing:For still our ancient foe doth seek to work us woe;His craft and power are great, and, armed with cruel hate,On earth is not his equal.

bach chorale prelude on a mighty fortress is our god
Bach: Chorale prelude on A Mighty Fortress Is Our God*
  • Composed 140-plus organ chorales*
  • Organ with three keyboards and a pedal keyboard
  • Based on chorale tune Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott
  • Varied texture
j s bach and the late baroque concerto
J. S. Bach and the Late Baroque Concerto*
  • Cöthen period (1717–23)
  • Instrumental chamber works
  • Margrave Christian of Brandenburg*
but first
But first….
  • Why was Bach in Berlin?
brandenburg concertos 1721 bwv 1046 1051
Brandenburg Concertos* 1721, BWV 1046–1051

Three movements each:

  • I: Allegro,
    • ritornello form, contrapuntal
  • II: Andante,
    • Slower, quieter, continuous imitation
  • III: Allegroassai,
    • four-voiced fugue
brandenburg concerto 1
Brandenburg Concerto* #1
  • 1st Movement
  • 2nd Movement
  • 3rd Movement
cello suite 1
Cello Suite* #1
  • Yo-Yo Ma playing the Prelude (MTV-ish)
  • Yo-Yo Ma playing the Sarabande
the goldberg variations 1741 bwv 988
The Goldberg Variations*, 1741, BWV 988
  • 30 variations
  • Harpsichord
    • Count Kaiserling
    • Johann Gottlieb Goldberg

You know how I feel about Wikipedia, but….

contrapuntal master
Contrapuntal Master
  • Musical Offering* (1747)
    • \'Gentlemen, old Bach is here\'
  • The Art of Fugue *
    • Incomplete
    • Encyclopedia of counterpoint
    • Methodical predictability
air on the g string
Air On The G String*
  • CD #1, track 10
  • Air* = aria* or song
  • Played on one string only, the last (or G) string
transpositions
Transpositions
  • German violinist August Wilhelmj (1845 – 1908)
  • Almost every instrument and vocalist
    • Julian Lloyd Webber with piano
listen for
Listen for…
  • Steady, predictable rhythm*
  • Sustained melody*
  • Intertwining voices between the string and keyboard
bwv numbers
BWV Numbers*
  • Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis
    • Bach – Works – Numbers
  • Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-1990)
  • Genre listing
    • Choral
    • Organ
    • Other keyboard
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