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Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc. Legend. Where you can go. Where you have been. Where you are. Immediate interactions. Industrial discharge. Animal accumulation. Air. Human uptake. Rainfall. Fertilizers Pesticides. Surface water. Plant and animal residue, microbial pool.

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Industrial discharge

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Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

Choose Your Own Adventure With Zinc

Legend

Where you can go

Where you have been

Where you are

Immediate interactions

Industrial

discharge

Animal

accumulation

Air

Human uptake

Rainfall

Fertilizers

Pesticides

Surface

water

Plant and animal residue,

microbial pool

Plant uptake

Minerals:

Spharelite,

Zincite, etc.

Soil Organic Matter

Highly soluble compounds:

Hydroxides

Carbonates

Silicates

Chlorides

Sulfates

Phosphates

Adsorption

Complexation

Precipitation

SOIL CLAYS:

Muscovite

Illite

Chlorite

Montmorillonite

Kaolinite

Adsorption

Zn2+ and chelates

Available at pH < 7.7

+ H2PO4

or nNO3

Complexation

+ nCl

Complexation

+ nH2O

Phosphate and

Nitrate

Complexes

Hydrolysis Species

Chloride Complexes

Main Cycle

More Info

Click on an object and follow the arrows to choose

your own adventure within the Zinc cycle


Industrial discharge

More Info on Zinc

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Main Cycle

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Concentration in soils

Form taken up by plant

Mobility in soil

Origin in soils

Mobility in plants

Effect of pH on availability

Deficiency found in

Interaction of Zn with other nutrients

Toxicity symptoms

Fertilizer sources

Role of Zn in the plant

Soil test

Role of Zn in microbial growth

References

Concentration in plants


Industrial discharge

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Form taken up by plant:

Zn2+ at pH < 7.7; Zn(OH)+ at pH > 7.7

(less available to plants).

Mobility in soil:

No (Low solubility): Soluble by chelation

by mobile ligands. Highly soluble at pH < 6.

Mobility in Plants:

Low: Mobility in plants does not coincide with

water flow. Zn is absorbed by plants as Zn2+

and transported as citrate, malate and

malonate complexes.


Industrial discharge

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  • Deficiency found in:

  • Acidic, sandy soils with high leaching, calcareous

    • soils pH>8.0, exposed subsoil horizons (erosion),

    • Deficiency symptoms are purple margins similar to

    • phosphorus deficiency, but also inward toward the

    • center of leaves (purple blotching), and brown spots

    • on rice leaves. Deficiency is rarely observed in

    • wheat. Zn deficiency can be corrected by application

    • of 2.5-25 kg/ha of ZnSO4 (depending on soil pH and

    • texture) or 0.3-6 kg/ha as chelates in broadcast or

    • band application. Foliar application of 0.5-2.0%

    • ZnSO4*7H2O effective for fruit trees for the growing

    • season; 2% solution is used for seed soaking. Soil

    • application corrects Zn deficiency for 2-5 years.


Industrial discharge

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  • Toxicity symptoms:

    • Most plant species have high tolerance to excessive

    • amounts of Zn. However, on acid and heavily sludged

    • soils Zn toxicity can take place. Zn toxicity symptoms

    • as follow: Inhibited root elongation, photosynthesis in

    • leaves, depresses RuBP carboxylase activity, chlorosis

    • in young leaves due to induced deficiency of Fe2+ and/or

    • Mg2+. Zn2+ has ion radius similar to Fe2+ and Mg2+,

    • which creates unequal competition for these elements

    • when zinc supply is high. The critical toxicity level in

    • leaves is 100-300 mg per kg of dry weight.


Industrial discharge

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  • Role of Zn in the plant:

  • 1. Component of ribosomes.

    • 2. Carbohydrate metabolism

    • a) a cofactor of carbonic anhydrase, which

      • converts CO2 into HCO3-

  • b) activity of photosynthetic enzymes: ribulose

  • 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (RuPPC)

  • c) Chlorophyll content decreases and abnormal

  • chloroplast structure occurs when Zn is deficient

  • d) Sucrose and starch formation by activating

  • aldolase and starch synthetase

  • 3. Protein metabolism: Stabilizes DNA and RNA structures

    • 4. Membrane integrity: Stabilizes biomembranes and

    • neutralizes free oxigen radicals, as a part of

    • superoxide dismutase

  • 5. Auxin metabolism: Controls tryptophane synthetase,

  • which produces tryptophane, a source for IAA

  • 6. Reproduction: Flowering and seed production are

  • depressed by Zn deficiency.


  • Industrial discharge

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    • Role of Zn in microbial growth:

      • Indispensability of Zn in metabolism of living organisms,

      • microflora also is highly dependent on concentrations

      • of zinc present. Some heterotrophs can tolerate high

      • concentration of Zn and behave as bioaccumulators of

      • Zn, among them Zoogloea-producing bacteria,

      • Ephiphytic bacteria, Nonsporing bacteria. Different

      • genera of Green Algae respond differently to Zn

      • contamination. Microspora, Ulothrix, Hormidium, and

      • Stigeoclonium are resistant to high Zn concentrations,

      • whereas genera such as Oedogonium and Cladophora

      • are rather sensitive to the presence of Zn.


    Industrial discharge

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    • Concentration in plants:

      • Depending on genotype, Zn concentration varies in the

      • range 25-150 ppm (0.0025-0.015% of dry weight) of Zn

      • sufficient plant.

  • Concentration in soils:

    • 10-300 ppm (0.001-0.03%). Concentration of total Zn

    • increases with depth, whereas extractable Zn content

    • decreases. Concentration of Zn in the upper horizon

    • also depends on organic matter content, which can

    • hold up to 13% Zn. In soils, 30-60% Zn can be found

    • in iron oxides, 20-45% in the lattice of clay minerals,

    • and 1-7% on clay exchange complex. Highest Zn

    • concentration is in solonchaks – saline soils in Asia,

    • lowest in light textured soils with low organic matter.


  • Industrial discharge

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    • Origin in soils:

      • Zinc composition of soils defined by parent material.

      • Magmatic rocks have 40 and 100 mg/kg Zn in granites

      • and basalt, respectively. Sedimentary rock composition

      • varies in the range 10 to 30 mg/kg in sandstones and

      • dolomites, and 80-120 mg/kg in clays,

  • Effect of pH on availability:

    • pH is the most important parameter of Zn solubility.

    • General equation for soil Zn is pZn = 2pH – 5.8

    • The form of Zn predominant at

    • · pH<7.7 – Zn2+

    • · pH>7.7 – ZnOH+

    • · pH<7.7 – Zn(OH)2


  • Industrial discharge

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    • Interaction of Zn with other nutrients:

      • Increase in available P content can considerably

      • decrease availability of Zn in the soil due to the

      • high antagonism between these two elements.

      • However, some authors suggest that symptoms

      • considered as a Zn deficiency are actually P toxicity.

      • Presence of other nutrients such as iron, copper,

      • manganese and calcium may also inhibit Zn uptake

      • by plants, probably due to the competition for the

      • carrier sites on roots. Application of high rates of

      • NPK fertilizers can aggravate Zn deficiency.


    Industrial discharge

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    • Fertilizer sources:

      • Zinc sulfate with 25-36%Zn, Zinc oxide – 50-80% Zn,

      • Zinc Chloride - 48% Zn, Zinc Chelate – 9-14.5% Zn,

      • and manure are used in agriculture.

  • Soil Test:

    • For available Zn determination four extractants are

    • generally used:

    • 0.1M HCL, EDTA-(NH4)2CO3,

    • Dithizone - NH4OAC, and DTPA-TEA.

    • Soil content of Zn of 2ppm (0.0002%) and higher are

    • sufficient for most of the crops, <2 ppm is deficient

    • for pecans, <0.8 ppm is deficient for corn. When Zn

    • concentration is less than 0.3 ppm, deficiency

    • symptoms are observed in less sensitive crops such

    • as cotton, wheat, soybean, etc.


  • Industrial discharge

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    References:

    Allowey, B.J. (ed.). 1990. Heavy Metals in Soils. John Wiley and Sons.

    New York.

    Johnson, G.V., W. R. Raun, H.Zang, and J.A. Hattey. 1997 Oklahoma Soil

    Fertility Handbook. 4th ed. Department of Agronomy Oklahoma State

    University.

    Kabata-Pendias, A., H. Pendias. 1991. Trace elements in soils and plants.

    2nd ed. CRC Press Boca Raton Ann Arbor London.

    Nriagu, J.O. (ed.). 1980. Zinc in the Environment. John Wiley and Sons.

    New York.

    Prasad, R., and J.F. Power. 1997. Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable

    Agriculture. CRC Press LLC. New York.

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