Central Place Theory. Central Place Theory. Central Place: market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area Theory explains how services are distributed and why a regular pattern of settlements exists
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The Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania is a portion of the Great Valley of the Appalachians. Broad valley floor, agricultural, settled in the early-to-mid 1700s
Note the regularity of spacing between urban centers -- towns. Local lore has it that the distances between towns evolved because it was the distance someone could travel in a day.
Grocery Stores Great Valley of the Appalachians. Broad valley floor, agricultural, settled in the early-to-mid 1700s
Houses of Worship
Concert HallsCentral Place FunctionsCategories of like services found in a central place
Would you travel farther to see your family physician or a heart specialist?
To see a heart specialist
To buy a new car
Would you travel farther to go to elementary school or to go to high school?
To go to high school
Stock Exchange groceries?
Regional Shopping Mall
Major Department Store
Income Tax Service
Threshold: the minimum number of people needed to support a central place function
With fewer customers a store cannot afford to stay in business.
Range: the maximum distance beyond which a person will not travel to purchase a good or service
Beyond a certain distance people cannot afford the travel costs.Each central place function has a:
Fig. 12-6: The optimal location for a pizza delivery shop with seven potential customers in a linear settlement (top) and with 99 families in apartment buildings (bottom).
Fig. 12-8: Market area, range, and threshold for Kroger supermarkets (left) and UDF convenience stores in Dayton, Ohio. Supermarkets have much larger areas and ranges than convenience stores.