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Using Information Technology. Chapter 5, from textbook Using Information Technology, pp169 - 198 Hardware--The CPU & Storage. Hardware--The CPU & Storage How to Buy a Multimedia Computer System. 5.1Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility 5.2The System Unit 5.3Secondary Storage

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Using information technology l.jpg

Using Information Technology

Chapter 5, from textbook Using Information Technology, pp169 - 198

Hardware--The CPU & Storage


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Hardware--The CPU & StorageHow to Buy a Multimedia Computer System

  • 5.1Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility

  • 5.2The System Unit

  • 5.3Secondary Storage

  • 5.4Future Developments in Processing & Storage


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Transistor - a tiny electrically operated switch, or gate, that can alternate between “on” and “off” many millions of times per second

5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & MobilityFrom Vacuum Tubes to Transistors to Microchips

1940s vacuum tube towering over 1950s transistor


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Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip

  • Make large drawing. Reduce drawing hundreds of times to microscopic size.

  • Duplicate reduced photo many times on sheet.


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Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip

  • Print sheet of multiple copies on a wafer made of silicon, a semiconductor.

  • Print layer after layer above and below original silicon surface.


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Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip

  • Cut wafer into chips.

  • Mount chip in frame with connective pins extruding.


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Miniaturization Miracles: Microchips, Microprocessors, & Micromachines

  • Types of microchips:

  • Memory

  • Logic

  • Communications

  • Graphics

  • Math

  • Microprocessor

  • Microcontroller


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5.2 The System UnitThe Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions

  • The binary system has only two digits--0 and 1.

  • Bit - binary digit

  • Byte - group of 8 bits used to represent one character, digit, or other value


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The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions

  • Kilobyte1000 bytes

  • Megabyte1,000,000 bytes (one million)

  • Gigabyte1,000,000,000 bytes (one billion)

  • Terabyte1 trillion bytes

  • Petabyte1 quadrillion bytes


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The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions

  • ASCII - the binary code most widely used with microcomputers

  • EBCDIC - used with large computers

  • Unicode - uses two bytes for each character rather than one


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The Parity Bit

Parity bit - an extra bit attached to the end of a byte for purposes of checking for accuracy

  • Even parity - sum of bits must come out even

  • Odd parity - sum of bits must come out odd

Even parity scheme


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Machine Language

  • Machine language - a binary-type programming language that the computer can run directly


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The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons & Boards

  • Bay - a shelf or opening used for the installation of electronic equipment

  • System unit - houses the motherboard, power supply, and storage devices

  • Case - empty box with just power supply

Overhead view of system unit


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Power Supply

  • Power supply - a device that converts AC to DC to run the computer

  • Types of power protection devices:

  • Surge protector

  • Voltage regulator

  • UPS

UPS

Surge protector


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The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip

  • Motherboard - the main circuit board in the system unit

  • Expansion - increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware

  • Upgrading - changing to newer, more powerful versions


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The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip

  • Two principal architectures or designs of microprocessors:

  • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a large number of instructions at relatively low processing speeds

  • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a reduced number of instructions in order to obtain faster processing speeds


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The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip

  • Two kinds of microprocessors used in most personal computers today:

  • Intel-type chips made by Intel, AMD, and others

  • Motorola-type chips made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers


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Processing Speeds: From Megahertz to Picoseconds


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How the Processor or CPU works: Control Unit, ALU, & Registers


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How the Processor or CPU works: Control Unit, ALU, & Registers

Machine cycle


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How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash

  • Types of memory chips:

    • RAM - Random Access Memory, used to temporarily hold software instructions and data

    • ROM

    • CMOS

    • Flash


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How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash

  • Types of memory chips:

  • RAM

  • ROM - Read-Only Memory, which cannot be written on or erased by the computer user. Contains fixed start-up instructions

  • CMOS

  • Flash


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How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash

  • Types of memory chips:

  • RAM

  • ROM

  • CMOS - Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor; powered by a battery and thus doesn’t lose its contents when the power is off

  • Flash


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How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash

  • Types of memory chips:

  • RAM

  • ROM

  • CMOS

  • Flash - can be erased and reprogrammed more than once


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How Cache Works: Level 1 (Internal) & Level 2 (External)

  • Cache - temporary storage for instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently, thus speeding up processing

  • Level 1 (L1) cache - built into the microprocessor

  • Level 2 (L2) cache - consists of RAM chips outside microprocessor

  • Virtual memory - free hard-disk space used to extend the capacity of RAM


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Other Methods of Speeding Up Processing:Interleaving, Bursting, & Pipelining

  • Interleaving - a process in which the CPU alternates communication between two or more memory banks

  • Bursting - a process in which the CPU grabs a block of information at a time, on the assumption that the next address requested will be sequential to the previous one

  • Pipelining - division of large tasks into a series of smaller overlapping ones


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Ports & Cables

  • Types of ports:

  • Serial port - sends bits one at a time, one after another

  • Parallel port

  • SCSI port

  • USB port

  • Dedicated port

  • Infrared port


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Ports & Cables

  • Serial port

  • Parallel port - transmits 8 bits simultaneously

  • SCSI port

  • USB port

  • Dedicated port

  • Infrared port


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Ports & Cables

  • Serial port

  • Parallel port

  • SCSI port - allows data to be transmitted in a “daisy chain” to up to 7 devices

  • USB port

  • Dedicated port

  • Infrared port


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Ports & Cables

  • Serial port

  • Parallel port

  • SCSI port

  • USB port - can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy-chained to one general-purpose port

  • Dedicated port

  • Infrared port


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Ports & Cables

  • Serial port

  • Parallel port

  • SCSI port

  • USB

  • Dedicated port - special-purpose ports

  • Infrared port

Dedicated ports: mouse port, modem port, and keyboard port


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Ports & Cables

  • Serial port

  • Parallel port

  • SCSI port

  • USB

  • Dedicated port - special-purpose ports

  • Infrared port - allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices


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Expandability: Buses & Cards

  • Expansion slots- sockets on the motherboard into which you can plug expansion cards

  • Expansion cards - circuit boards that provide more memory or that control peripheral devices


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Expandability: Buses & Cards

  • ISA bus - for ordinary low-speed uses; the most widely used expansion bus

  • PCI bus - for higher-speed uses; used to connect graphics cards, sound cards, modems, and high-speed network cards

  • AGP bus - for even higher speeds and 3D graphics


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Expandability: Buses & Cards

  • Graphics cards - for monitors

  • Sound cards - for speakers and audio output

  • Modem cards - for remote communication via phone lines

  • Network interface cards - for remote communication via cable

  • PC cards - for laptop computers


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5.3 Secondary StorageFloppy Disks

  • Floppy disk - a removable flat piece of mylar plastic packaged in a 3.5-inch plastic case


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Floppy-Disk Cartridges

  • Zip disks - 100 or 250 Mb

  • SuperDisks - 120 Mb

  • HiFD disks - 200 Mb


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Hard Disks

  • Hard disks - thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots


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Hard Disks

  • Head crash - event that happens when the surface of the read/write head or particles on its surface come into contact with the surface of the hard-disk platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk


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Hard Disks

  • Nonremovable hard disks - housed in a microcomputer system unit and used to store nearly all programs and most data files


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Hard Disks

  • Removable hard disks - one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputer’s cartridge drive

Bits on disk - dark stripes are 0 bits and bright stripes are 1 bits


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Hard-Disk Technology for Large Computer Systems

  • Removable packs - 6-20 hard disks aligned one above the other in a sealed unit

  • Fixed-disk drive - high-speed, high-capacity disk drives that are sealed in their own cabinets

  • RAID storage system - two or more disk drives within a single cabinet which sends data to the computer along several parallel paths simultaneously


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Summary

  • Microchips, miniaturization and mobility: difference between transistors, IC and microprocessors

  • System unit: data in computers, components of system cabinet

  • Secondary storage: floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks


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