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Using Information Technology. Chapter 5, from textbook Using Information Technology, pp169 - 198 Hardware--The CPU & Storage. Hardware--The CPU & Storage How to Buy a Multimedia Computer System. 5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility 5.2 The System Unit 5.3 Secondary Storage

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using information technology

Using Information Technology

Chapter 5, from textbook Using Information Technology, pp169 - 198

Hardware--The CPU & Storage

hardware the cpu storage how to buy a multimedia computer system
Hardware--The CPU & StorageHow to Buy a Multimedia Computer System
  • 5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility
  • 5.2 The System Unit
  • 5.3 Secondary Storage
  • 5.4 Future Developments in Processing & Storage
5 1 microchips miniaturization mobility from vacuum tubes to transistors to microchips
Transistor - a tiny electrically operated switch, or gate, that can alternate between “on” and “off” many millions of times per second5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & MobilityFrom Vacuum Tubes to Transistors to Microchips

1940s vacuum tube towering over 1950s transistor

steps in manufacture of a microchip
Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip
  • Make large drawing. Reduce drawing hundreds of times to microscopic size.
  • Duplicate reduced photo many times on sheet.
steps in manufacture of a microchip5
Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip
  • Print sheet of multiple copies on a wafer made of silicon, a semiconductor.
  • Print layer after layer above and below original silicon surface.
steps in manufacture of a microchip6
Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip
  • Cut wafer into chips.
  • Mount chip in frame with connective pins extruding.
miniaturization miracles microchips microprocessors micromachines
Miniaturization Miracles: Microchips, Microprocessors, & Micromachines
  • Types of microchips:
  • Memory
  • Logic
  • Communications
  • Graphics
  • Math
  • Microprocessor
  • Microcontroller
slide8
5.2 The System UnitThe Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions
  • The binary system has only two digits--0 and 1.
  • Bit - binary digit
  • Byte - group of 8 bits used to represent one character, digit, or other value
the binary system using on off electrical states to represent data instructions
The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions
  • Kilobyte 1000 bytes
  • Megabyte 1,000,000 bytes (one million)
  • Gigabyte 1,000,000,000 bytes (one billion)
  • Terabyte 1 trillion bytes
  • Petabyte 1 quadrillion bytes
the binary system using on off electrical states to represent data instructions10
The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions
  • ASCII - the binary code most widely used with microcomputers
  • EBCDIC - used with large computers
  • Unicode - uses two bytes for each character rather than one
the parity bit
The Parity Bit

Parity bit - an extra bit attached to the end of a byte for purposes of checking for accuracy

  • Even parity - sum of bits must come out even
  • Odd parity - sum of bits must come out odd

Even parity scheme

machine language
Machine Language
  • Machine language - a binary-type programming language that the computer can run directly
the computer case bays buttons boards
The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons & Boards
  • Bay - a shelf or opening used for the installation of electronic equipment
  • System unit - houses the motherboard, power supply, and storage devices
  • Case - empty box with just power supply

Overhead view of system unit

power supply
Power Supply
  • Power supply - a device that converts AC to DC to run the computer
  • Types of power protection devices:
  • Surge protector
  • Voltage regulator
  • UPS

UPS

Surge protector

the motherboard the microprocessor chip
The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip
  • Motherboard - the main circuit board in the system unit
  • Expansion - increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware
  • Upgrading - changing to newer, more powerful versions
the motherboard the microprocessor chip16
The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip
  • Two principal architectures or designs of microprocessors:
  • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a large number of instructions at relatively low processing speeds
  • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a reduced number of instructions in order to obtain faster processing speeds
the motherboard the microprocessor chip17
The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip
  • Two kinds of microprocessors used in most personal computers today:
  • Intel-type chips made by Intel, AMD, and others
  • Motorola-type chips made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers
how memory works ram rom cmos flash
How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash
  • Types of memory chips:
    • RAM - Random Access Memory, used to temporarily hold software instructions and data
    • ROM
    • CMOS
    • Flash
how memory works ram rom cmos flash22
How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash
  • Types of memory chips:
  • RAM
  • ROM - Read-Only Memory, which cannot be written on or erased by the computer user. Contains fixed start-up instructions
  • CMOS
  • Flash
how memory works ram rom cmos flash23
How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash
  • Types of memory chips:
  • RAM
  • ROM
  • CMOS - Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor; powered by a battery and thus doesn’t lose its contents when the power is off
  • Flash
how memory works ram rom cmos flash24
How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash
  • Types of memory chips:
  • RAM
  • ROM
  • CMOS
  • Flash - can be erased and reprogrammed more than once
how cache works level 1 internal level 2 external
How Cache Works: Level 1 (Internal) & Level 2 (External)
  • Cache - temporary storage for instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently, thus speeding up processing
  • Level 1 (L1) cache - built into the microprocessor
  • Level 2 (L2) cache - consists of RAM chips outside microprocessor
  • Virtual memory - free hard-disk space used to extend the capacity of RAM
other methods of speeding up processing interleaving bursting pipelining
Other Methods of Speeding Up Processing:Interleaving, Bursting, & Pipelining
  • Interleaving - a process in which the CPU alternates communication between two or more memory banks
  • Bursting - a process in which the CPU grabs a block of information at a time, on the assumption that the next address requested will be sequential to the previous one
  • Pipelining - division of large tasks into a series of smaller overlapping ones
ports cables
Ports & Cables
  • Types of ports:
  • Serial port - sends bits one at a time, one after another
  • Parallel port
  • SCSI port
  • USB port
  • Dedicated port
  • Infrared port
ports cables28
Ports & Cables
  • Serial port
  • Parallel port - transmits 8 bits simultaneously
  • SCSI port
  • USB port
  • Dedicated port
  • Infrared port
ports cables29
Ports & Cables
  • Serial port
  • Parallel port
  • SCSI port - allows data to be transmitted in a “daisy chain” to up to 7 devices
  • USB port
  • Dedicated port
  • Infrared port
ports cables30
Ports & Cables
  • Serial port
  • Parallel port
  • SCSI port
  • USB port - can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy-chained to one general-purpose port
  • Dedicated port
  • Infrared port
ports cables31
Ports & Cables
  • Serial port
  • Parallel port
  • SCSI port
  • USB
  • Dedicated port - special-purpose ports
  • Infrared port

Dedicated ports: mouse port, modem port, and keyboard port

ports cables32
Ports & Cables
  • Serial port
  • Parallel port
  • SCSI port
  • USB
  • Dedicated port - special-purpose ports
  • Infrared port - allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices
expandability buses cards
Expandability: Buses & Cards
  • Expansion slots- sockets on the motherboard into which you can plug expansion cards
  • Expansion cards - circuit boards that provide more memory or that control peripheral devices
expandability buses cards34
Expandability: Buses & Cards
  • ISA bus - for ordinary low-speed uses; the most widely used expansion bus
  • PCI bus - for higher-speed uses; used to connect graphics cards, sound cards, modems, and high-speed network cards
  • AGP bus - for even higher speeds and 3D graphics
expandability buses cards35
Expandability: Buses & Cards
  • Graphics cards - for monitors
  • Sound cards - for speakers and audio output
  • Modem cards - for remote communication via phone lines
  • Network interface cards - for remote communication via cable
  • PC cards - for laptop computers
5 3 secondary storage floppy disks
5.3 Secondary StorageFloppy Disks
  • Floppy disk - a removable flat piece of mylar plastic packaged in a 3.5-inch plastic case
floppy disk cartridges
Floppy-Disk Cartridges
  • Zip disks - 100 or 250 Mb
  • SuperDisks - 120 Mb
  • HiFD disks - 200 Mb
hard disks
Hard Disks
  • Hard disks - thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots
hard disks39
Hard Disks
  • Head crash - event that happens when the surface of the read/write head or particles on its surface come into contact with the surface of the hard-disk platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk
hard disks40
Hard Disks
  • Nonremovable hard disks - housed in a microcomputer system unit and used to store nearly all programs and most data files
hard disks41
Hard Disks
  • Removable hard disks - one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputer’s cartridge drive

Bits on disk - dark stripes are 0 bits and bright stripes are 1 bits

hard disk technology for large computer systems
Hard-Disk Technology for Large Computer Systems
  • Removable packs - 6-20 hard disks aligned one above the other in a sealed unit
  • Fixed-disk drive - high-speed, high-capacity disk drives that are sealed in their own cabinets
  • RAID storage system - two or more disk drives within a single cabinet which sends data to the computer along several parallel paths simultaneously
summary
Summary
  • Microchips, miniaturization and mobility: difference between transistors, IC and microprocessors
  • System unit: data in computers, components of system cabinet
  • Secondary storage: floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks
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