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Air Quality Permitting Case Studies. March 15, 2006. Peter J. Moore Yorke Engineering 949-248-8490 x24. Agenda. Overview of Permitting Equipment Information Emission Calculations Forms Rule Evaluation New Source Review Health Risk Assessment RECLAIM Title V

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Air quality permitting case studies

Air Quality PermittingCase Studies

March 15, 2006

Peter J. Moore

Yorke Engineering

949-248-8490 x24


Agenda

Agenda

  • Overview of Permitting

  • Equipment Information

  • Emission Calculations

  • Forms

  • Rule Evaluation

  • New Source Review

  • Health Risk Assessment

  • RECLAIM

  • Title V

  • Once You Receive Your Permit-to-Construct

  • Resources


Overview

Overview

  • What requires a permit?

    • Anything that emits pollutants

  • Equipment Categories

    • Boilers >2 MMBTU/hour

    • Internal Combustion Engines >50 bhp

  • New construction

  • Modification of existing equipment


Scaqmd rule 201

SCAQMD Rule 201

  • "A person shall not build, install, erect, alter or replace any equipment, the use of which may cause the issuance of air contaminants or the use of which may eliminate, reduce or control the issuance of air contaminants without first obtaining written authorization for such construction from the Executive Officer"


Criteria pollutants

Criteria Pollutants

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SOx)

  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx)

  • Ozone

  • Lead

  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)

  • Particulate Matter (PM)

  • Precursors are also regulated


Pollutant precursors

Pollutant Precursors

PollutantPrecursors

OzoneNOx, ROG

PM10NOx, SO2, ROG

SOxSO2, SO4, PM


Equipment information

Equipment Information

  • Specific equipment information will be put into the permit

  • Collect detailed information about the equipment

    • Equipment rating (as indicated on nameplate)

    • Manufacturer’s spec sheets

    • Photos

    • Exhaust stack parameters

    • Emissions data


Equipment description

Equipment Description

  • Boiler

    • BOILER, NO. 1, CLEAVER BROOKS, MODEL CB-LE, FIRE-TUBE TYPE, WITH A NATURAL GAS FIRED, LOW NOX BURNER, PROFIRE MODEL NTH, RATED AT 4,200,000 BTU PER HOUR, AND EQUIPPED WITH A FLUE GAS RECIRCULATION SYSTEM

  • Internal Combustion Engine

    • INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE, CUMMINS, MODEL GTA8.3-HC-G2, NATURAL GAS FUELED, RICH BURN, FOUR CYCLE, SIX CYLINDERS, TURBOCHARGED, AFTERCOOLED, RATED AT 219 B.H.P., WITH A NON-SELECTIVE CATALYTIC CONVERTER, JOHNSON MATTHEY MODEL BX50-6, AND AN AIR/FUEL RATIO CONTROLLER, NEUTRONICS MARK V, DRIVING AN ELECTRIC GENERATOR


Forms

Forms

  • Download forms from:

    • www.aqmd.gov/permit/forms.html

  • 400-A (1 for each piece of equipment)

  • 400-E-9a (Boiler)

  • 400-E-13b (I.C. Engine)

  • 400-CEQA (1 for each application)

  • 400-XPP (optional expedited)


Rule evaluation

Rule Evaluation

  • Rule 212: Standards for Approving Permits

  • Rule 219: Exemptions from Permitting

  • Rule 301: Fees

  • Regulation IV: Prohibitions

  • Regulation XI: Source Specific Standards

  • Regulation XIII: New Source Review (NSR)

  • Rule 1401: NSR of Toxic Air Contaminants


Rule 212 standards for approving permits

Rule 212:Standards for Approving Permits

  • Public Notice is required if:

    • New or modified equipment that results in increase in air emissions within 1000 feet of a K-12 school

    • Cancer risk increase >1 in one million for facilities with more than one permit unit

      • Unless you can demonstrate facility risk is less than 10 in one million

    • Cancer risk increase >10 in one million for facilities with one permit unit


Nearest school montessori academy 9062 firestone blvd

Nearest SchoolMontessori Academy, 9062 Firestone Blvd.

School

Distance to school = 1150 ft.

Exhaust Stacks

IMA Polluter


Rule 219 equipment not requiring a written permit

Rule 219: Equipment Not Requiring a Written Permit

  • Lists equipment that is exempt from permitting

  • Always review to see if there is an exemption for your equipment

  • Boilers <2 MMBTU/hour

  • Internal Combustion Engines <50 bhp


Rule 301 permit fees

Rule 301: Permit Fees

  • Look up equipment category in Tables IA (Control Equipment) and IB (Basic Equipment)

  • Look up fees on table of Summary Permit Fee Rates

  • Expedited processing: para. 301(y)

    • 50% additional fees

  • Small Business: para. (c)(1)(E)

    • 50% discount on fees

  • Identical Equipment: para. (c)(1)(F)

    • Fee for second unit is 50% of first


Regulation iv prohibitions

Regulation IV: Prohibitions

  • Rule 401: Visible Emissions

  • Rule 402: Nuisance

  • Rule 404: Particulate Matter-Concentration

  • Rule 405: Solid Particulate Matter-Weight

  • Rule 431.1: Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels


Regulation xi source specific standards

Regulation XI:Source Specific Standards

  • Rule 1110.2: Emissions from Gaseous- and Liquid-Fueled Stationary Internal Combustion Engines

  • Rule 1146 (Large boilers)

  • Rule 1146.1: Emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen from Small Industrial, Institutional and Commercial Boilers, Steam Generators, and Process Heaters

  • Rule 1146.2 (Water heaters, small boilers)


New source review

New Source Review


Regulation xiii new source review nsr

Regulation XIII:New Source Review (NSR)

  • Rule 1303: Requirements

  • Rule 1304: Exemptions

  • Rule 1306: Emission Calculations

  • Major concepts:

    • BACT

    • Offsets

    • Modeling


Nsr best available control technology

NSR:Best Available Control Technology

  • Required for all new equipment and any modification that increases emissions

  • BACT is determined on a case-by-case basis

  • Use BACT listings to find comparable equipment

  • The SCAQMD publishes a separate document for “Non-major polluting facilities” (minor source BACT)


Nsr offsets

NSR: Offsets

  • Adding new pollutants to the air may need to be “offset” by purchasing Emission Reduction Credits (ERC)

  • Calculate the facility Potential-to-Emit

    • Maximum operating schedule for all permitted equipment for one year

  • If PTE exceeds thresholds, offsets are required [Rule 1304 para. (d)]


Nsr modeling

NSR: Modeling

  • Modeling determines whether the emissions from the new equipment will cause a violation of the clean air standards

  • Requires use of an air quality simulation model

  • For small equipment, modeling is satisfied by exemption:

    • 1303, Appendix A, Table A-1


Health risk assessment

Health Risk Assessment


Rule 1401 nsr of toxic air contaminants

Rule 1401:NSR of Toxic Air Contaminants

  • Required to perform health risk assessment for any increase in toxic air contaminants

  • Calculate health risk indices:

    • Maximum Individual Cancer Risk (MICR)

    • Cancer Burden

    • Acute Health Risk Index (HIA)

    • Chronic Health Risk Index (HIC)


Toxic air contaminants tac

Toxic Air Contaminants (TAC)

  • There are a large number of toxics to be considered, for example:

    • Benzene

    • Formaldehyde

    • Acetaldehyde

    • Acrolein

    • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  • TAC’s cause health risk impacts


Health risk assessment guidelines

Health Risk Assessment Guidelines

  • Determine TAC emission rates

  • Determine distances to nearest receptors

  • Calculate health risk indices per SCAQMD guidelines


Aerial photo

Exhaust Stacks

IMA Polluter

Facility Boundary

Aerial Photo


Nearest offsite worker

Exhaust Stacks

Offsite worker

Distance to offsite worker = 50 meters

Nearest Offsite Worker


Nearest residence

Residences

Exhaust Stacks

Distance to residence = 250 meters

Nearest Residence


Health risk index micr

Health Risk Index - MICR

  • Maximum Individual Cancer Risk (MICR)

  • Long term impact

  • Probability that an individual will contract cancer over 70 years (resident receptor) or 40 years (commercial receptor)

  • Must be < 1 x 10-5 (10 in one million) for new equipment

    • <1 x 10-6 to avoid public notice


Health risk index chronic

Health Risk Index - Chronic

  • Chronic Hazard Index (HIC)

  • Long term, non-cancer health effects

  • Must be < 1.0 for all target organs


Health risk index acute

Health Risk Index - Acute

  • Acute Hazard Index (HIA)

  • Short term (1-hour average) health effects

  • Must be < 1.0 for all target organs


What are target organs

What Are Target Organs?

  • Specific systems in the human body that are affected by TACs


Tier i screening evaluation

Tier I Screening Evaluation

  • Max Annual Controlled Emissions (tons/year)

  • Max Hourly Controlled (lbs/hr)

  • Look up tables in: “Risk Assessment Procedures for Rules 1401 and 212”

    • Check for most recent version!

  • If emissions are lower than screening levels, Rule 1401 is satisfied. If not, proceed to Tier II


Tier ii risk assessment for micr

Tier II Risk Assessment for MICR

  • MICR = CP x DI x MP

    • CP: cancer potency factor (mg/kg-day)-1

    • DI = Dose inhalation (mg/kg-day)

    • DI = Cair x DBR x EVF x 10-6

      • Cair = concentration in air (µg/m3)

      • DBR = daily breathing rate (L/kg-day)

      • EVR = Exposure value factor (unitless)

      • 1 x10-6 = convert µg to mg(10-3 mg/µg), liters to cubic meters (10-3 m3/l)

    • Cair = Qtonsx X/Q x AFannx MET

      • Qtons = Emission rate (tons/year)

      • X/Q = Dispersion Factor ((µg/m3)/(ton/yr)

      • AFann = Annual Averaging factor

      • MET = meteorological correction factor (unitless)

    • MP: multipathway factor (unitless)

  • MICR = CP x ((Qtonsx X/Q x AFannx MET) x DBR x EVF x 10-6) x MP


Chronic index equation

Chronic Index Equation

HIC Chronic hazard index (calculated for each target organ)

TACSum of the contribution for each Toxic Air Contaminant (TAC)

QyrTACEmission rate of each TAC (tons/year)

X/QAnnual average dispersion factor (g/m3)/(ton/year)

RELTACChronic Reference Exposure Level (g/m3) for each TAC

MPMulti-pathway adjustment factor (n.d.)

METMeteorological correction factor (n.d.)


Acute index equation

Acute Index Equation

HIA Acute hazard index (calculated for each target organ)

TACSum of the contribution for each Toxic Air Contaminant (TAC)

QhrTACEmission rate of each TAC (lb/hour)

X/QhrHourly average dispersion factor (g/m3)/(lb/hour)

RELTACAcute Reference Exposure Level (g/m3) for each TAC


Cancer burden calculation

Cancer Burden Calculation

  • Only Needed if MICR >10-6

  • Estimate Area (km2) with Risk >10-6

  • Multiply Area by 4,000 - 7,000 persons/ km2

  • Multiply Total Persons by MICR

  • If Burden >0.5

    • More detailed calculations or modeling required


Reclaim

RECLAIM

  • REgional CLean Air Incentives Market

  • NOx and SOx are only pollutants regulated under RECLAIM

  • Facilities that have reported over 4 tons/year of NOx/SOx are in RECLAIM

  • RECLAIM permits look different

    • “Facility” permit

  • Regulation XX


Differences in permitting under reclaim

Differences in Permitting under RECLAIM

  • NSR for NOx/SOx is found in Regulation XX (Rule 2005)

  • Existing rules do not apply to NOx/SOx

    • E.g. NOx requirements in Rule 1110.2 and 1146.1 would not apply

  • For emission increases, facility must hold sufficient RECLAIM Trading Credits (RTC) for one year ahead

  • Additional fees in Rule 301(o) and (q)


Title v

Title V

  • Title V is a Federal Operating Permit program under EPA

  • Major sources of pollutants are subject to Title V

    • e.g. NOx or VOC PTE > 10 tons/year

  • Title V permits are also “facility” permits

  • Regulation XXX


Differences in permitting under title v

Differences in Permitting under Title V

  • Additional forms

    • Form 500 series

  • Requires certification of compliance

  • Additional fees in Rule 301(p) and (q)

  • Permits must be reviewed by EPA prior to issuance (45 days)

  • Public notice


Once you receive your permit

Once You Receive Your Permit

  • Read it!!!

  • If there are errors or disputed conditions, write to the permit engineer within 30 days to negotiate corrections

  • If necessary file appeal to Hearing Board within 30 days

  • Permit to construct is valid for one year

    • Request an extension if you need one


Source test

Source Test

  • Conduct source test

    • Hire qualified source test company

    • Have them submit a source test protocol; make sure that all permit conditions are reflected in protocol

    • Notify SCAQMD of test date

    • Observe deadlines

    • Communicate with permit engineer if you cannot meet deadlines


Ongoing compliance

Ongoing Compliance

  • When equipment is constructed, permit to construct functions as temporary permit to operate

  • Read carefully all monitoring and recordkeeping conditions and do what it says


Resources

Resources

  • North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS)

    • www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html

  • Maps/Aerial Photos

    • www.mapquest.com

    • terraserver.microsoft.com

    • maps.google.com

  • BACT Guidelines

    • www.aqmd.gov/bact/BACTGuidelines.htm


Resources emission factors

Resources: Emission Factors

  • EPA AP-42

    • www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/index.html

  • Ventura County Emission Factors(external combustion only)

    • www.aqmd.gov/prdas/pdf/COMBEM2001.pdf

  • SCAQMD(Annual Emission Report Guidelines)

    • www.ecotek.com/aqmd/2005/forms_and_instructions_pdf/0405_GuideBook.pdf


Resources1

Resources

  • Risk Assessment Guidelines

    • www.aqmd.gov/prdas/Risk%20Assessment/RiskAssessment.html#CurrentRiskAssessment

  • Gas Company

    • socalgas.com/business/resource_center/aq_programs.shtml

    • PermitWorks Program


Questions answers

Questions & Answers


Peter moore yorke engineering llc

Peter MooreYorke Engineering, LLC

(949) 248-8490 x24

[email protected]

www.YorkEngr.com


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