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The Front-End of Vaccine Manufacturing: Getting Good Candidates from the Get-Go. William Warren, Donald Drake, Janice Moser, Haifeng Song, Eric Mishkin VaxDesign Corporation Orlando, FL 32826 Eric Eisenstadt, Hervé Tettelin, Scott Peterson

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The Front-End of Vaccine Manufacturing: Getting Good Candidates from the Get-Go

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The Front-End of Vaccine Manufacturing:

Getting Good Candidates from the Get-Go

William Warren, Donald Drake, Janice Moser,

Haifeng Song, Eric Mishkin

VaxDesign Corporation

Orlando, FL 32826

Eric Eisenstadt, Hervé Tettelin, Scott Peterson

The Institute For Genomic Research

Rockville, MD 20850

VaxDesign’s work was funded by DARPA/DSO in the

Rapid Vaccine Assessment Program

TIGR’s work was funded by NIH/NIAID & Novartis

  • High risk

  • Large investment

  • Ill-afford lost opportunity costs

Manufacturing Facilities Begin During Clinical Trials

5 – 15 years

Conventional Vaccine Development

DNA recombinant technology

Costs and Time Associated with Today’s

Vaccine Product Lifetime Cycle

  • Challenges:

  • Can we obtain possible vaccine candidates faster?

  • Can we reduce the time to get vaccines to the marketplace?

  • Can we reduce the associated costs?

  • Can we make a more predictive and representative readout?

  • Can we have greater success in clinical trials?

Reverse Vaccinology: Applying Genomics, Immunology & Engineering To Rapidly Assess Vaccine Candidates

High Throughput Gene


~ 6 months - 1 year

Genomics, Tissue Engineering, & Automation Provide a New Approach

  • Genomics analysis of DNA sequence information identifies vaccine candidates that can be used alone or in combination

  • Tissue engineering provides direct access to predictive human immune response without using people

  • High throughput automation for repeatable, reproducible and rapid processes

The Systems Vaccinology Pipeline

Whole genome sequence

In silico comparisons

and antigen predictions

Steps 1 & 2: Produce the genome sequence, read it, and predict the vaccine candidates (reverse vaccinology)

TIGR: rapid sequencing technologies that have allowed us to clone thousands of open reading frames derived from the genomes of a variety of infectious agents, including influenza virus

Proof of Principle for Reverse Vaccinology via TIGR/Chiron Partnership

Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis - MenB

No vaccine candidate in 40 years of classical vaccinology

Genome sequence

7 novel candidates

Antigenic, Accessible, Highly Conserved

Specific and Bactericidal

Tettelin et al. (2000) Science 287, 1809-1815

Pizza et al. (2000) Science 287, 1816-1820

Group B Streptococcus - GBS

One genome sequenced - No candidate providing broad protection

Tettelin et al. (2002) PNAS 99, 12391-12396

Analysis of 8 genomes

Highly diverse species

Cocktail of 4 candidates confer broad protection

Tettelin et al. (2005) PNAS 102, 13950-13955

Maione et al. (2005) Science 309, 148-150

The Systems Vaccinology Pipeline

Step 3: Making the Vaccine Antigens viaHigh Throughput Expression

  • Directly from the pathogen genome via high-throughput technology that clones and translates the gene

  • Indirectly by synthesizing the gene de novo and then translate it

The Gateway Cloning Platform

Men B Vaccine: Genomic Approach

Bottleneck and relevance?

The Systems Vaccinology Pipeline

  • Clinical trial in a test tube: high throughput in vitro assay system

Step 4: High-throughput testing of proteins as possible human vaccine candidates

  • ex vivo models of human immunity that are functionally equivalent to the human immune system

  • Meld immunology with engineering to find elegant, practical solutions to complex biological problems

Lymphoid Tissue

Equivalent Module

Vaccination Site

Collagen Module

Artificial Immune System Cell Interactions

How To Create a Functional Ex Vivo AIS

Lymphoid Tissue Equivalent (LTE)

Vaccination Site (VS)

DC crossing


Microbes and Infection (2003) 5: 205-212

Example: Representative Ex-Vivo Immunogenicity Testing

Donor had a high anti-tetanus toxoid titer; yet, the industry standard PBMC assay failed to show protection

The artificial immune system construct supports the induction of naïve and recall human B cell responses

Predictive ex vivo Clinical Research For Influenza

  • Representative high-throughput ex vivo clinical research model that can assess initiation through neutralization immune responses of influenza/pandemic vaccine candidates

  • Rapid, predictive influenza/pandemic strain selection

    • Test immunity to circulating strains

      • Vaccine selection

      • Strains in which there are deficiencies or inappropriate responses










The Systems Vaccinology Pipeline

Develop vaccines or fully human therapeutic mAbs

When Thinking of Vaccine Manufacturing ….

  • Companion diagnostics to better design clinical trials

    • e.g., Herceptin: only donors with Her2 receptors respond

    • HBV works on 80-90% of population

  • Couple in vitro culture techniques with rapid sequencing and expression technologies to create an automatable, high-throughput system for assessing clinical viral isolates to elicit specific immunity in the population at large

When Thinking of Vaccine Manufacturing ….

  • In-line immunogenicity with new manufacturing processes

    • e.g., Eprex® EPO induced immunity to EPO in some patients, which caused severe anemia

    • e.g., Biogenerics

    • e.g., New formulations

  • Generate wholly human mAbs

    • Use the AIS as an Ab biofactory

Need for New Predictive & Representative Vaccine Candidates Earlier in the Vaccine Development Pipeline

  • $51B spent for drug and vaccine discovery and development in 1995

    • Increases by 7% each year

  • $1B in R&D cost for each new drug and vaccine approved, including failures

    • Predicted to reach $2B by 2010

  • Manufacturing is an intimate part of these costs

  • Reverse Vaccinology may reduce costs to bring drugs to the market



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