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Chantier Méditerranée. ChArMEx. The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment Observational strategy and A first estimate of associated needs Contact: [email protected] ChArMEx.

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Chantier

Méditerranée

ChArMEx

The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment

Observational strategy

and

A first estimate of associated needs

Contact: [email protected]


ChArMEx

ChArMEx is the atmospheric chemistry component of the programme: it deals with short-lived tropospheric species and their impacts on the regional climate, air quality and (marine) ecosystems


ChArMEx work packages overview

  • COORDINATION

  • 7 SCIENCE WPs:

    • SOURCES

    • AGING

    • TRANSPORT

    • RADIATION

    • DEPOSITION

    • TRENDS

    • FUTURE

  • 7 IMPLEMENTATION WPs:

    • OBSERVATORY

    • MONITORING

    • AIRCRAFT

    • BALLOONS

    • CAMPAIGNS

    • MODELLING

    • DATA BASE


ChArMEx overall strategy

  • AMMA-type: multi-scale integrated strategy

    • 3 levels of in situ field observation:

      • SOP: Special Observation Periods (~6 weeks, 2 successive yr)

        • detailed process studies at the regional scale

        • lagrangian and column type observations

        • intensive campaigns, extensive measurements, airborne means

        • support from real-time satellite products and model forecasts

      • EOP: Enhanced Observation Period (2-3 yr)

        • daily to seasonal variability

        • statistical approach by continuous monitoring incl. detailed chem.

        • normalized meas., stations distributed to account for N-S and E-W gradients

      • LOP: Long-term Observation Period (5-10+ yr)

        • trends

        • a few networked background observatories

        • basic chemical and radiative parameters

    • Spaceborne remote sensing

    • Chemistry-transport and chemistry-climate modelling

  • Data base



A focus of sops on the summer season

GOME JJA2000 tropospheric O3 column (DU)

(courtesy of B. Sauvage et al.)

A focus of SOPs on the summer season

  • Clear sky favorable to remote sensing

Summer max.:

+ ~50%

Daily surface concentrations in particulate Si at a backgound coastal site in Corsica

(Bergametti et al., Kluwer, 1989)

Summer max.:

+ 1 order of magnitude


New: Corsica

New:

Balearic Islands

??

Marine Nationale Semaphore at Ersa, Cap Corse

Lampedusa

Finokalia

Aerosol effective radius frequency

r < 0.70 µm

1.10 < r < 1.75 µm

A new network of Mediterranean background observatories

Summer (JJA) 2007 aerosol optical depth at 865 nm from PARASOL

(courtesy of D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé and F. Ducos)

+ existing background observatories (e.g. PAES, IAGOS…)



Le site a t test cet t
Le site a été testé cet été…

Caisson mobile instrumenté (Qualitair Corse)

Photomètre AERONET/PHOTON (LOA/LA)

  • épaisseur optique en aérosol (atténuation

  • du rayonnement par les particules dans l’atmosphère)

  • taille de l’aérosol : fin (pollution/feux de biomasse)

  • ou grossier (poussières minérales)

  • capacité d’absorption/diffusion des particules

  • indicateur du « type » d’aérosols

  • période : juin 08 → maintenant…

  • concentration en O3

  • masse totale en aérosol (PM2.5)

  • période : juin 08 → sept. 08


On y voit bien les pisodes de transport grande chelle
… on y voit bien les épisodes de transport à grande échelle

Teneur en aérosol intégrée verticalement – AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth at 440 nm)

AOD moyenne ≈ 0.21

épisode 1: poussières sahariennes

épisode 1: pollution européenne

(data available at http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov)


Possible stations for the standardized deposition network échelle(or secondary stations for additional parameters)

  • Core deposition parameters:

    total dust, soot, P, Fe, Hg

  • Needed: consolidation and/or new of AERONET sites

  • Expected: rain radar western Corsica

Master sites

Master sites for Hg

Basic deposition network

*MOOSE network

Cap-Ferrat*

Monaco?

La Seyne-Sur-Mer*

Porquerolles Isl.*

Cap Bear*

Frioul Isl.*

Cap Corse

Western Italy?

Bonifacio

Lecce?

Eastern Spain?

Rende

Balearic Islands ?

Carloforte?

Trapani?

Tunis

Alger

Ghozo?

Oran

Tanger

Lampedusa

Nador

Medenine


Aircraft operations 1 2
Aircraft operations (1/2) échelle

SAFIRE

  • French Falcon-20 aircraft

    • MOZART-SAFIRE instrument for O3 & CO

    • AMOVOC for VOCs (LISA)

    • MOZAIC water vapour probe (FZJ-Julich, Germany)

    • Micro aerosol backscatter lidar

    • ALTO ozone lidar

    • Dropsonding system

    • Passive tracer releasing and sampling system from DLR (to be checked)

    • Aerosol passive remote sensor from LOA (OSIRIS)

    • Possibly SPIRIT spectrometer from LPCE for H2O, O3, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and NO2 or HCHO and HNO3

  • French ATR42 aircraft

    • MOZART-SAFIRE for O3 and CO

    • MONA for NOx/NOy

    • PTRMS and AMOVOC for VOCs

    • LNG aerosol lidar

    • Airborne sun photometer PLASMA (LOA)

    • Aerosol kinetic inlet with aerosol payload (LISA or LAMP-CNRM) and AMS (MPI or LACE-Villeurbanne)

    • Aerosol filter sampling (LISA, LGGE)

SAFIRE


Aircraft operations 2 2
Aircraft operations (2/2) échelle

  • LSCE Ultralight

    • Aerosol lidar measurements (355 nm)

    • In situ scatterometer (870 nm)

    • In situ meteorological measurements

    • Broadband radiative fluxes

  • FZK Ultralight (W. Junkermann)

    • In situ meteorological measurements

    • In situ gas measurements: O3, CH2O, CO2

    • In situ aerosol size distribution and optical properties

    • Upwelling and downwelling actinic fluxes from 290 to 700 nm

    • Spectral albedo from 320 to 1000 nm (5 channels)

    • Shortwave radiation balance

    • Eventually infrared radiation (pyrgeometer)

  • FZK-Karlsruhe Dornier (U. Corsmeier) ?

    • Dynamical and gas measurements

  • DLR Falcon-20 ??

AMMA SOP-0, Niamey airport


Possible aircraft bases
Possible aircraft bases échelle

F20 range ATR-42 range

  • Detailed strategy to be discussed


Drifting balloons

T, échelleHR, V

SST

Drifting balloons

CNES

CNES

Pressurized balloons (BP)

(up to <3 km)

GPS, P, T, U

Aerosol optical counter/sizer

Brodband ↑ and ↓ shortwave and longwave fuxes

Aeroclipper

Surface fluxes

GPS,

SST

T, U, q at ~10 m (h to be known)

aerosol counter and radiation ?


Balloon strategy
Balloon strategy échelle

Spaceborne lidar CALIOP, 26 June 2006, night time

African dust

MABL

Eastern Europe

(CALIOP data from NASA)

  • + radiosounding O3 (and aerosol?) balloons from Ajaccio

    • 1 per week during EOP, 2 per day during SOPs

  • + UTLS transmed (Sicily-Spain) stratospheric balloon:

    • 1 per SOP, SPIRALE (O3, CO, CH4, CH2O, OCS, N2O, NO2, HNO3, HCl)


ChArMEx operation schedule échelle

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

I

I

I

I

LOP, on going

EOP, spring 2010-autumn 2012 (3 summers)

? SOP ?

2nd phase

eastern Med.

SOP-C1

summer 2011

SOP-C2

summer 2011

  • Joint EOP with HyMeX, MERMEX (and SICMED?)

  • ChArMEX SOPs alternated with other SOPs



Estimated needs for balloons
Estimated needs for balloons échelle

  • Low altitude balloon campaigns

    • Support to scientific institutes

      2010: 22 k€ 2011: 14 k€ 2012: 14 k€

    • CNES Balloon Division

      Test campaign 2010: 195 k€

      Sci. campaign 2011: 750 k€

      Sci. campaign 2012: 750 k€

  • Balloon soundings

    • 2010 (EOP): 35 k€ (90 k€ with aerosol sensor)

    • 2011 (EOP+SOP): 100 k€ (200 k€)

    • 2012 (EOP+SOP): 100 k€ (200 k€)

  • Stratospheric balloons

    • Support to scientific institutes: 2011: 70 k€ 2012: 70 k€

    • CNES Balloon Division: 2011: 748 k€ 2012: 624 k€


Estimated needs 1 5 m yr excl equipement and balloons
Estimated needs: ~1.5 M€/yr échelle(excl. equipement and balloons)

  • French aircraft (ATR-42, F-20, ULA)

    • 2010: 10 k€ (recce)

      + implementation of a tracer release system

    • 2011: 425 k€ + tracer release

    • 2012: 425 k€ + tracer release

  • Deposition action

    • EOP (2010-2012): 65 k€/yr x 3 yr

    • SOP equipment (2011): 67 k€

  • Sources and emission inventories

    • 2010: 425 k€ 2011: 425 k€ 2012: 250 k€

  • Chemical analyses (EOP/SOP)

    • ~40 k€/yr ?

  • To be completed…


Preparation phase request 2009
Preparation phase request (2009) échelle

  • INSU

    • LEFE/CHAT proposal (113 participants, 34 institutes, 200 pers. x month)

AMMA SOP-0, Niamey airport

Forçage radiatif aérosols, télédétection

Forçage radiatif,

modélisation régionale

+1 bourse CNES-région MIP: ballons

1. Ingénieur instrumentation: observatoire corse

2. Chef de projet

  • + ANR ?

  • CNES

    • Drifting balloons: 18.9 k€


Cumulative residence time close to the surface (log colorscale in s) of a large ensemble of back-trajectories ending at Cap Corse (one trajectory every 3 hours in June-July-August 2005, computed with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART). It provides an estimation of the potential relative influence of each source point on in situ measurements made at Cap Corse. Grey iso-contours plotted every 12 h represent the mean travel time from a given local point to Cap Corse.

(courtesy of François Gheusi, LA-Toulouse and Stephan Henne, EMPA-Switzerland)


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