Introductions
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Introductions. Should capture the audience’s attention. Should state the thesis . Should provide an overview of the main points which will be covered in the body of the paper. Should connect to the next paragraph (in idea and language) . Writing an Essay (contd.). Attention Grabbing Ideas.

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Introductions

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Introductions

Introductions

  • Should capture the audience’s attention.

  • Should state the thesis .

  • Should provide an overview of the main points which will be covered in the body of the paper.

  • Should connect to the next paragraph (in idea and language)


Writing an essay contd

Writing an Essay (contd.)

Attention Grabbing Ideas

  • List of relevant examples

  • Short summary

  • Surprising statement

  • Thought-provoking question

Brief description or story

Comparison or contrast

Dialogue

Inspiring or intriguing quote

Relevant statistic


Writing an essay contd1

Writing an Essay (contd.)

  • State your thesis.

    • Identifies the main idea of your essay.

    • Usually comes in the first or second paragraph.

    • Similar to a topic sentence but represents the idea of an entire essay versus one paragraph.

    • Contains a topic and your opinion of the topic.


Writing an essay contd2

Writing an Essay (contd.)

  • Provide an overview of the main points.

    • Additional sentences may be used if the main points are not identified in the thesis.

    • Avoid a mechanical list of points.

    • Give the reader a clear idea of what is going to be covered.


Writing an essay contd3

Writing an Essay (contd.)

Body paragraphs

  • Often begin with a topic sentence

  • Include several supporting sentences (logos, pathos, ethos)

  • Use transitions to help ideas flow smoothly

  • Make sure all ideas relate to the overall thesis of the essay


Topic sentences

Topic Sentences

  • A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence.

  • A topic sentence has several important functions:

  • it substantiates or supports an essay’s thesis statement

  • it unifies the content of a paragraph and directs the order of the sentences

  • it advises the reader of the subject to be discussed and how the paragraph will discuss it.


Topic sentences1

Topic Sentences

  • Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph.

  • That’s why it’s often best to put the topic sentence at the very beginning of the paragraph.

  • In some cases, however, it’s more effective to place another sentence before the topic sentence—for example, a sentence linking the current paragraph to the previous one, or one providing background information.


Supporting sentences

Supporting Sentences

Try and use a variety of rhetorical appeals in supporting your opinions

  • Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal. Facts, statistics, examples, and other forms of evidence provide logos.

  • Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently from the message--his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth. The impact of ethos is often called the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'

  • Pathos(Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated with emotional appeal. However, a better equivalent might be 'appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination.' An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels


Transitions

Transitions

Help notify the reader that the writer is changing directions or making a new point:

  • To give examples: for example, for instance

  • To show time or order: first, later

  • To show location: above, near

  • To compare: similarly

  • To contrast: in contrast

  • To show a cause: because

  • To show an effect: as a result

  • To add information: additionally

  • To show emphasis: in other words, in fact

  • To conclude or summarize: finally, as a result


Writing an essay contd4

Writing an Essay (contd.)

Concluding paragraph(s)

  • Should wrap up the entire essay

  • Should review the developed thesis

  • Should summarize the main points as necessary

  • Should end with a memorable thought

  • Avoid introducing new ideas or concepts

  • Avoid clichés


Signal phrases

Signal Phrases

a phrase, clause, or even sentence which leads into a quotation or statistic.  These generally include the speaker/author’s name and some justification for using him or her as an expert in this context; it may also help establish the context for the quotation.

All paragraphs in an APA style paper should use signal phrases when quoting, summarizing, or paraphrasing.


Model signal phrases

Model Signal Phrases

  • In the words of researchers Redelmeier and Tibshirani, “…”

  • As Matt Sundeen has noted, “…”

  •  Patti Pena, mother of a child killed by a driver distracted by a cell phone, points out that “…”

  •  “…” writes Christine Haughney, “…”

  •  “…” claims wireless spokesperson Annette Jacobs.

  • Radio hosts Tom and Ray Magliozzi offer a persuasive counterargument:  “…”


Signal phrases contd

Signal Phrases(contd.)

Useful Verbs:

AcknowledgesAddsAdmitsAddressesArguesAssertsBelievesClaimsCommentsConfirms ContendsComparesDeclaresDeniesDisputesEmphasizesEndorsesGrantsIllustratesImpliesInsistsNotes ObservesPoints outReasonsRefutesRejectsReportsRespondsSuggestsThinksWrites


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