The Mongols
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The Mongols. Mr. Giesler Global History. Nomads of the Asian Steppe. TTYN : What is a Steppe? What might be the benefits of living in a steppe?. Geography of the Steppe Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia—provides home for nomads.

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The Mongols

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The mongols

The Mongols

Mr. Giesler

Global History


The mongols

Nomads of the Asian Steppe

TTYN: What is a Steppe? What might be the benefits of living in a steppe?

  • Geography of the Steppe

    • Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia—provides home for nomads.

    • Two main expanses: Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia.

    • Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal temperature differences.


The mongols

TTYN: What is Nomad? What is a Pastoralist?

  • The Nomadic Way of Life

    • Steppe nomads are pastoralists—herd domesticated animals.

    • Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled horse riders.

    • Nomads travel in clans—kin groups are linked by a common ancestor.


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  • Steppe Nomads and Settled Societies

    • Nomads and people living in settled communities often interact.

    • Some interactions are peaceful, as in trade.

    • Sometimes nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth and goods.

    • Strong state or empire could protect its lands from these invasions.


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The Rise of the Mongols

K-W-L: What do you know or think you know about the Mongols

  • Genghis Khan Unites the Mongols

    • About 1200, Genghis Khan—”universal ruler”—unites Mongols.

    • In early 1200s, he begins a campaign of conquest.

    • By 1225, Genghis Khan controls central Asia.


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  • Genghis the Conqueror

  • Temujin

  • A brilliant organizer and strategist.

  • Uses brutality to terrorize his enemies and force surrenders.

  • Calculating and skilled military

  • Well-disciplined

  • Demonstrated compassion after submission


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Who Was Genghis Khan

  • Born to a tribal leader between 1163 an 1167 during a period intermittent warfare

  • At a young age, Temujin's father was murdered by rival tribesman;

  • At the age of 16, he married his childhood bride Borte

  • Shortly after marriage, Borte was kidnapped but Temujin was able to call on some friends to lead a rescue operation. This was successful and although Borte was found to be with child, Temujin would bring up the child as if it was his.

  • In 1206 a council of Moghul tribesmen met to declare Temujin as 'Genghis Khan - meaning 'Oceanic Ruler of the Universe.'

  • With the backing of the three strongest tribes, Genghis Khan was able to unify the various Mongol tribes into one of the most impressive war machines ever assembled. It was this loyalty and unity that was so rare in that era.


The mongols

  • Genghis Khan had tremendous ambition to conquer and plunder loot. He first turned his attention to the powerful Chinese empire.

  • He was successful in capturing their city and gaining the obeisance of the Chinese.

  • This allowed him to turn his attentions to the West and Genghis Khan led his Mongol armies west - deep into the heart of Europe - spreading fear and destruction.

  • Genghis Khan did not just look to kill people, he was mainly interested in conquering and gaining wealth.

  • He could accept the surrender of a defeated enemy and often used consummate skill to avoid conflict merely through emissaries who would spread tales of fear and the impending force of Genghis Khan's war machine.


The mongols

  • Genghis Khan could show great loyalty to those who were loyal to him, and equally he could turn on those he considered to be disloyal or resisted.

  • Genghis Khan also encouraged trade and commerce within his realm. He forbade his troops to attack merchants and through his control of the main trading routes, trade and culture flourished as people could travel within the Monghul Empire stretching from China in the East to the Black Sea in the East. Genghis Khan was also tolerant of religions and exempted priests from paying tax.


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The Mongol Empire

  • Death and Succession

    • Genghis Khan dies in 1227.

      • Ironically, he died after falling off a horse

    • Successors continue conquests for 50 years.

    • The Mongols conquer territory from China to Poland.

  • The Khanates

    • In east, Mongols conquer northern China and invade Korea.

    • In west, Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna and Venice.

    • In 1250s, Mongols turn their attention to Persia.

    • By 1260, Mongol Empire split into khanates of four regions.

  • Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s is called PaxMongolica.


The mongols

The Mongols

….to be continued during our discovery of Japan, China, and Russia


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