ENERGY SYNERGISM: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENERGY STABILITY

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OUTLINE. Global challenges and emerging threats.EU external energy dependence.Renewable energies.Cost of electric energy.Nuclear fission power plants.New nuclear energy programs.Conclusions.. GLOBAL ENERGY CHALLENGES AND EMERGING THREATS TO ENERGY SECURITY. CHALLENGES:Global demand of energ

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ENERGY SYNERGISM: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENERGY STABILITY

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1. ENERGY SYNERGISM: A FRAMEWORK FOR ENERGY STABILITY Guillermo Velarde and Natividad Carpintero-Santamaría Institute of Nuclear Fusion Polytechnic University of Madrid ICENES 2011 – San Francisco, May 15-19, 2011

2. OUTLINE Global challenges and emerging threats. EU external energy dependence. Renewable energies. Cost of electric energy. Nuclear fission power plants. New nuclear energy programs. Conclusions.

3. GLOBAL ENERGY CHALLENGES AND EMERGING THREATS TO ENERGY SECURITY CHALLENGES: Global demand of energy (estimated to rise more than 50% by 2030). Increasing and changeable oil prices (speculation, political instability). Boosting of a new process demand and import dependence in several countries. Reduction of emissions of CO2. THREATS: Vulnerability of indispensable energy infrastructure. Political instability, natural disasters and other threats.

4. ENERGY TRANSPORT ROUTES: TOO FEW!! STRAIGHT OF HORMUZ: The only sea route to the US, Europe and Asia. Big strategic significance. High tension political region. High global energy repercussions in the case of war, terrorism or accidents.

5. ENERGY TRANSPORT ROUTES: TOO FEW!! STRAIGHT OF MALACCA Very complex scenario. Main shipping route between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Dependence of Asian economies. Piracy and armed robbed area: Since 2005 the number of attacks has dropped due to litoral states authorities establishing anti-piracy and anti-maritime robbery.

6. HIGH EUROPEAN ENERGY DEPENDENCE European countries are dependent of non-EU countries for future supply. There is not a common energetic policy among the countries. Every country presents different energetic characteristics with dependence in variable energy sources: coal, nuclear, hydro, hydrocarbons. 45% of EU oil imports come from the Middle East. 40 of EU gas imports come from Russia. 30% from Argelia.

7. ENERGY COOPERATION WITH THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA Since 1991 the European Union has participated in the development of the energy sector in the Caucasus and Central Asia countries by means of the TACIS programme. In 2011, there are several agreements of cooperation in the oil and gas sectors signed with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. The Baku Initiative to enhance the cooperation with Littoral States of the Black and Caspian Seas.

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