Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements
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Chapter 4: Adjustments, Trial Balance, and Financial Statements. Acct 2301 Fall 2009 Cox School of Business, SMU Professor Zining Li. What do We Hope to Learn?. Accounting Cycle Adjusting entries What, why, when, and how to adjust? Unadjusted and adjusted trial balance

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Chapter 4: Adjustments, Trial Balance, and Financial Statements

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Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Chapter 4: Adjustments, Trial Balance, and Financial Statements

Acct 2301 Fall 2009

Cox School of Business, SMU

Professor Zining Li


What do we hope to learn

What do We Hope to Learn?

  • Accounting Cycle

  • Adjusting entries

    • What, why, when, and how to adjust?

  • Unadjusted and adjusted trial balance

  • Preparing financial statements

  • Closing process


Accounting cycle

Accounting Cycle

  • Identify recordable financial transactions

  • Record the journal entries

  • Post journal entry amounts to T-accounts

  • Prepare the unadjusted trial balance

  • Record adjusting journal entries

  • Prepare the adjusted trial balance

  • Prepare the financial statements

  • Record the closing entries


Adjusting entries

Adjusting Entries

  • Under accounting, revenues (expenses) are recorded when they are earned (incurred)

  • Some revenues (expenses) are earned (incurred) without any external transaction

  • Adjusting entries are needed to record such revenues and expenses in the correct period

  • Adjustments are made at the end of a reporting period


Timetable of the adjustment process

Timetable of the Adjustment Process

Transactions are recorded all during the period

1/1/04

12/31/04

Adjustments are made at the end of the period, but before the financial statements are prepared


What need to be adjusted

What need to be adjusted

  • Accruals

    • Accrued revenues

    • Accrued expenses

  • Deferrals

    • Deferred revenues

    • Deferred expenses


What need to be adjusted 1

What need to be adjusted (1)

  • Accrued revenues

    • Those are revenues that are already earned, although cash haven’t been collected

    • Revenues need to be recorded, at the same time, assets are increased

  • Example: interest revenue


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Interest Receivable

Interest Revenue

12/31 150

12/31 150

Bal. 150

Bal. 150

On October 1, 2006, Webb, Inc. invests $10,000 for 6 months in a certificate of deposit that pays 6% interest per year. Webb will not receive the interest until the CD matures on March 31, 2007. On December 31, 2006, Webb, Inc. must make an entry for the interest earned so far.


What need to be adjusted 2

What need to be adjusted (2)

  • Accrued expenses

    • Those are expenses that are already incurred through out the accounting period, although cash haven’t been paid

    • Expense need to be recorded, at the same time, liabilities are increased

  • Examples:

    • Salary expense

    • Interest expense

    • Tax expense


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

  • As of 12/27/06, Denton, Inc. had already paid $1,900,000 in wages for the year. Denton pays its employees every Friday. Year-end, 12/31/06, falls on a Wednesday. The employees have earned total wages of $50,000 for Monday through Wednesday of the week ending 1/02/07.


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Wages Expense

Wages Payable

As of 12/27

$1,900,000

12/31 50,000

12/31 50,000

Bal. 50,000

Bal. $1,950,000

After we post the entry to the T-accounts, the account balances look like this:


What need to be adjusted 3

What need to be adjusted (3)

  • Deferred revenues

    • Previously recorded as liabilities when cash were received before goods were delivered or services were rendered

    • At the end of reporting period, if the earning process is complete, these liability accounts need to be reduced, and revenues are recorded

  • Examples

    • Unearned rent revenue --> rent revenue

    • Unearned franchise revenue --> franchise revenue

    • Unearned subscription revenue --> subscription revenue

    • Unearned ticket revenue --> ticket revenue


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

On December 1, 2006, Tom’s Rentals received a check for $3,000, for the first four months’ rent from a new tenant.

On December 31, 2006, Tom’s Rentals must adjust the Unearned Rent Revenue account to reflect that one month of rent revenue has been earned. $3,000 × 1/4 = $750


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Unearned Rent Revenue

Rent Revenue

12/31 750

12/1 3000

12/31 750

Bal. 2,250

Bal. 750

After we post the entry to the T-accounts, the account balances look like this:


What need to be adjusted 4

What need to be adjusted (4)

  • Deferred expenses

    • Previously recorded as assets when cash were paid before these assets are being used

    • At the end of reporting period, the “used-up” amount of these assets need to be reduced, and expenses are recorded

  • Examples

    • Buildings and Equipment (PP&E) --> Depreciation expenses

    • Supplies --> Supplies expense

    • Prepaid rent --> Rent expense

    • Prepaid insurance --> Insurance expense


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

On January 1, 2006, Matrix, Inc. paid $3,600 for a 3-year fire insurance policy.

On December 31, 2006, Matrix, Inc. adjust the Prepaid Insurance Expense account to reflect that 1 year of the policy has expired. $3,600 X 1/3 = $1,200


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Prepaid

Insurance

Insurance Expense

1/1 3,600

12/31 1,200

12/31 1,200

Bal. 2,400

Bal. 1,200

After we post the entry to the T-accounts, the account balances look like this:


Journal entry for depreciation expense is different

Journal Entry for Depreciation Expense is different

  • Accumulated Depreciation is a contra-asset account; it carries a credit balance

Dr. Deprecation Expense

Cr. Accumulated Depreciation


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

On January 1, 2006, Matrix, Inc. paid $8,000 for equipment, which is expected to last 5 years

On December 31, 2006, Matrix, Inc. adjust the Equipment account to reflect that 1 year use of the equipment

$8,000 X 1/5 = $1,600


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Accumulated Depreciation

-- Equipment

Equipment

Depreciation Expense

1/1 8,000

12/31 2,000

12/31 2,000

Bal. 8,000

Bal. 2,000

Bal. 2,000

Net Book Value of Equipment:

  • Equipment

  • Accumulated Depreciation

  • = Equipment (net)


Adjusting entries summary

Adjusting Entries: Summary

  • Done at the end of reporting period

  • No cash account in an adjusting entry

  • Revenues and expenses are recorded

  • Non-cash asset accounts or liability accounts are increased or decreased

  • Adjusting entries affect income statement, balance sheet, statement of retained earnings; but NOT cash flow statement


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Exercise: Recording transactions with journal entries

College Caps, Inc. operates a small retail store in the mall that sells baseball caps. The following transactions occurred during June 2004.

  • June 1Paid $700 cash for insurance policy through December 31, 2004.

  • June 1Purchased store equipment for $5,000 by signing a note. The company estimates annual depreciation of $1,200.

  • June 5Purchased supplies worth $500 with cash.

  • June 15Loaned $10,000 to the manager of the store (as a personal loan) for one year. The annual rate of interest on the loan is 12%. The loan is supported by a note and interest is due upon repayment.

  • June 28Earned revenue of $1,400 with delivery of custom cap order for SMU football team. SMU must pay the bill by July 31. Cost of the caps sold was $500.

  • June 30Amount of supplies on hand is $300. The balance in the Supplies account was $150 on June 1.

Record all journal entries, including the adjusting entries, that must be made at June 30 in order for the company to prepare its financial statements.


Chapter 4 adjustments trial balance and financial statements

Exercise: Complete the accounting cycle

College Caps, Inc. Trial Balance – unadjusted as of June 30, 2004

AccountDRCR

Cash 8,150 Accounts Receivable 7,500 Supplies 650 Inventory 5,500 Prepaid Insurance 700 Notes Receivable 10,000 Equipment 5,000 Accounts Payable 6,050 Contributed Capital 30,000 Retained Earnings 550 Sales Revenue 1,400 Cost of Sales 500

TOTALS 38,00038,000

  • Post the adjusting entries for the period ended June 30, 2004 and prepare an adjusted trial balance. Income tax expense should be recorded at 30% of pretax net income.

  • Prepare the income statement, statement of retained earnings, and balance sheet.


Closing

Closing

  • When: After all four financial statements are prepared

  • What: all income statement accounts

  • Closing means to bring the balances of all the income statement accounts to zero

  • Key Terms

    • Permanent accounts

    • Temporary accounts


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