Ancient india 2
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Ancient India-2. Mrs. Cox Paisley IB WHAP. Learning Objectives. The chief features of the of the Harappan civilization, and the ways in which it was similar to the civilizations that arose in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The effects of the class system and family on Indian civilization.

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Ancient india 2

Ancient India-2

Mrs. Cox

Paisley IB

WHAP


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • The chief features of the of the Harappan civilization, and the ways in which it was similar to the civilizations that arose in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

  • The effects of the class system and family on Indian civilization.

  • The tenets of Hinduism and Buddhism, and how each religion influences Indian civilization.


Learning objectives1

Learning objectives

  • India’s inability to maintain a unified empire in the first millennium BCE.

  • How the Mauryan empire was temporarily able to overcome tendencies towards disunity.


Learning objectives2

Learning Objectives

  • The ways in which the culture of ancient India resembled and differed from the cultural experience of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  • Some of the key factors that explain why India became one of the first regions to create an advanced technological society in the ancient world and the degree to which it merits comparisons with Mesopotamia and Egypt as the site of the first civilizations.


Critical thinking questions

Critical thinking questions

  • 1. Compare the Brahmins and Vaisyas.

  • 2. What was the significance of the jati?

  • 3. What was life for women in ancient India?

  • 4.What were key elements of Aryan religious beliefs that were incorporated into Hinduism?

  • 5. What is the significance of reincarnation in Hinduism?


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society

Emergence of Civilization in India: Harappan Society

  • A land of diversity

  • 1. Many languages and peoples: Dravidians, Aryan, and hill peoples

  • 2. Cradle of religions: Hinduism and Buddhism, also Sikhism and Islam


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society1

Emergence of Civilization in India: Harappan Society

  • 3. Geography

  • Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in north

  • River valleys of the Indus and Ganges

  • Deccan plateau in the south


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society2

Emergence of Civilization in India:Harappan Society

  • Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma, only discovered in 1920s

  • 1. Possibly ancestors to today’s Dravidians in south India

  • 2. Covered 600,000 square miles

  • 3.Major cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, 400 miles apart


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society3

Emergence of Civilization in India:Harappan Society

  • 4. Political and Social Structures

  • Harappa perhaps 80,000 population, 3-1/2 miles circumference

  • Cities on grid pattern, buildings of standardized bricks

  • Writing not yet deciphered, but included four hundred characters


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society4

Emergence of Civilization in India:Harappan Society

  • Probably not a centralized monarchy but rather 1,500 cities and towns loosely connected by trade and alliances

  • Based on agriculture, perhaps first to cultivate cotton


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society5

Emergence of Civilization in India:Harappan Society

  • 5. Harappan Culture

  • Architecture functional rather than monumental

  • Wheel –turned and kiln-fired pottery


Emergence of civilization in india harappan society6

Emergence of Civilization in India:Harappan Society

  • A Lost Civilization?-north of Indus River from Caspian Sea to Afghanistan


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • Harappan fall not due to Aryans but probably natural disasters ( climatic change, floods)


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce1

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • The early Aryans were pastoralists ( cows and horses) not agriculturalists

  • 1. Belonged to Indo- Europeans of steppes of Central Asia

  • 2. Moved across the Ganges plains between 1500 and 1000 BCE and then south across the Deccan plateau


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce2

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 3. Eventually adopted agriculture, used the iron plow

  • 4. Developed a writing system based on Aramaic script from the Middle East

  • 5. Most what is known about early Aryans is from oral traditions of the Rig Veda


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce3

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 6. Tribes led by chiefs called rajas, kings were maharajas (“great rajas”)

  • A. Warrior class were the Kshatriya

  • B. Required to follow the dharma, or laws, that set out standards for all


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce4

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 7. Impact of the Greeks

  • A. Alexander the Great arrived in India in 326 BCE

  • B. Left Greek administrator and veneer of Greek culture


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce5

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • C. The Mauryan Empire

  • 1. Founded by Chandragupta Maury (324-301BCE)

  • A. Advised by Kauthilya possible author of Machiavellian-like Arthasastra

  • 1. Practical politics ends justify the means


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce6

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 2. Provinces ruled by appointed governors, divided into districts

  • 3. Most lived in agricultural villages, governed by council of elders


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce7

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • D. Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India

  • 1. The Class System

  • a. Aryans superior over non-Aryans/Dravidians

  • 1. Light skin, high status, dark skin lower status


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce8

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • b. Classes known as Varna ( color), sometimes mistakenly called castes

  • 1. Brahmins, the priestly class

  • 2. Kshatriya, the warrior class

  • 3. Vaisyas, the commoners, often merchants


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce9

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 4. Sudras, servants and laborers, mostly indigenous peoples

  • 5. Outcasts or untouchables

  • c. Class divisions were to be absolute in theory, and one was born and died in the same class enforced by numerous taboos


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce10

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • d. class system provided an identity for individuals in a hierarchical society

  • 2. The Jati: kinship groups living in specific areas and carrying out specific functions

  • a. Each jati was composed of hundreds of thousands of individual families


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce11

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • E. Daily life in Ancient India

  • 1. The Family: three generations under same roof and generally patriarchal

  • a. Linked together by ancestral religious rites

  • b. Male superiority, could be priests, and had monopoly on education


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce12

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 2. Marriage

  • a. Women legally considered as a minor, and divorce generally prohibited

  • b. Child marriage common for young girls

  • c. Ritual of sati required wife to immolate ( kill ) herself on husband’s funeral pyre ( fire)_


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce13

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 3. The role of women

  • a. Little utility (use) outside the home, but could have much influence inside it

  • b. A liability because parents required to provide dowry (money to new husband) when she married

  • c. Indians fascinated by female sexuality


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce14

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • F. The Economy

  • 1. Indian Farmers

  • a. Life harsh: taxes high, often worked the land as sharecroppers, famine was common

  • b. Unpredictable climate as much depended upon the seasonal monsoons


The arrival of the aryans in india 1500 bce15

The Arrival of the Aryans in India: 1500 BCE

  • 2. Trade and Manufacturing

  • a. Trade networks from China to the Mediterranean

  • b. Indians trade spices, perfumes, jewels, textiles for gold, tin, lead, wine

  • c. Under the Mauryas, government played a major role


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • A. Hinduism over time the original Aryan worship evolved into Hinduism

  • 1. Vedas are the sacred texts of hymns and ceremonies transmitted by Aryan priests

  • a. Pantheon ( lots of them) of nature gods, common to most Indo-Europeans

  • 1. Indra ( warrior god) and Varuna ( lord of justice)


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india1

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • b. Sacrifice important in ceremonies by priests ( Brahmins)

  • c. Asceticism in pursuit of spiritual meditation to get beyond material reality

  • 1. Led to yoga (union)


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india2

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • 2. Reincarnation: individual soul is reborn after death in different forms

  • a. Final destination is union with Great World Soul, Brahman, and escape from the cycle of existence

  • b. Karma (one’s actions) determine where one is reborn on the scale of existence

  • c. Dharma is the law regulating human behavior, differs depending upon class


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india3

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • 2. Hindu Gods and Goddesses-33,000 gods and goddesses

  • a. Primary trinity, and all had wives

  • 1. Brahma the Creator

  • 2. Vishnu the Preserver

  • 3. Shiva the Destroyer

  • b. Different manifestation of one ultimate reality


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india4

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • B. Buddhism: The Middle Path

  • 1. The Life of Siddhartha Gautama (560-480 BCE), the Buddha

  • a. Quest for how to escape from human suffering, which is caused by attachment to things of this world

  • The Middle Path between extreme asceticism and materialism


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india5

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • c. Material world is an illusion

  • d. Desires can be overcome through wisdom

  • (bodhi-Buddhism)

  • e. Escape from the wheel of life and achieve Nirvana by following the Eightfold Way

  • f. Reject Hinduism’s concept of class reincarnation as well as Hindu gods


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india6

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • g. After his death, some of his followers worshipped the Buddha as a god

  • 1. Stupas ( stone towers containing relics of the Buddha) constructed

  • 2. Monastic orders established, even for women


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india7

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • 2. Jainism: founded by Mahavira, contemporary of Siddhartha

  • a. Stress poverty and asceticism ( abstinence from worldly pleasures) and thus more extreme than Buddhism


Escaping the wheel of life the religious world of ancient india8

Escaping the Wheel of life: the religious World of ancient india

  • 3. Asoka, a Buddhist Monarch (269-232 BCE), grandson of Chandragupta Maurya

  • a. Became benevolent ruler, considered the greatest in Indian history

  • b. constructed rock edicts ( statements of authority )throughout India


The rule of fishes india after the mauryas whose dynasty ended in 183 bce

The RULE OF FISHES: India after the mauryas, whose dynasty ended in 183 bce

  • A. Numerous small kingdoms

  • B. Xiongnu warriors established the Kushan kingdom over much of north India

  • C. Rule of the fishes refer to the glorification of warfare, common attitude at the time


The exuberant world of indian culture

The Exuberant World OF indian culture

  • A. Literature

  • 1. Four Vedas, from 1500, transmitted orally for a thousand years

  • 2. Literary language was Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, replaced by Prakit in oral communication

  • 3. The Mahabharata (written 100 BCE) story of Bharata family feud 1000 BCE


The exuberant world of indian culture1

The Exuberant World OF indian culture

  • a. Bhagavad Gita and dialogue between Krishna (Vishnu) and Arjuna

  • 4. The Ramayana ( also written 100 BCE) story of Rama, the ideal Aryan hero, whose wife Sita was kidnapped by demon-king of Sri Lanka


The exuberant world of indian culture2

The Exuberant World OF indian culture

  • B. Architecture and Sculpture

  • 1. Religious structures include stone pillars (weighing up to 50 tons) stupas, and rock chambers ( such as Ajanta), many built by Ashoka

  • a. Popular and sacred themes, including Vedic, Buddhist, and pre-Aryan

  • b. Religious art often exuberant and sexual in portrayal of otherworldly delights


The exuberant world of indian culture3

The Exuberant World OF indian culture

  • C. Science

  • 1. Devised numerical system which is known as Arabic numbers

  • 2. Recognized spherical nature of the earth

  • 3. Matter was divided into five elements of earth, air, fire, water and ether. (ether- combustible compound)


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Around 3000 BCE a civilization arose along the banks of the Indus River in the Indian subcontinent; this civilization, the Harappan, rivaled those of Egypt and the Middle East.

  • Because scholars are unable to decipher Harappan pictographs, this great culture is not well understood.


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • The Harappan civilization ended abruptly around 1500 BCE, possibly because of the invasion of the Aryans from the north.

  • The mixture of Aryan and Dravidian cultures combined to form the basis of modern Indian civilization.


Conclusion2

Conclusion

  • The subcontinent is also the birthplace of two great religions-Hinduism and Buddhism, and other faiths including Sikhism and Islam flourish here.

  • India is greatly diverse in language, religion, culture, and geography, thus making it difficult to achieve unity under a single political leadership.


Conclusion3

Conclusion

  • Only the Mauryan dynasty succeeded in uniting this great civilization in its early history before it too collapsed under the pressure of internal divisions.

  • A distinct, diverse Indian culture remained, however.


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