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Today’s Schedule of Your Visit. Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours). European Organization for Nuclear Research. What and where is CERN?

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today s schedule of your visit

Today’s Schedule of Your Visit

Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min)

-- João BENTO

A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min)

A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours)

european organization for nuclear research

European Organization for Nuclear Research

What and where is CERN?

What does CERN do and how does CERN do it?

LHC (The Large Hadron Collider) and its 4 experiments

Particle physics and standard model

Spin-off of the particle physics (e.g. WWW was invented at CERN)


cern member states
CERN member states
  • Founded in 1954 by 12 countries
  • Today: 20 member states
  • More than 7000 users from all over the world
  • ~1000 MCHF / Year budget

1954: Convention establishing the Organization - original signatures

2004: The 20 member states


CERN in Numbers

  • 2256 staff
  • ~700 other paid personnel
  • ~9500 users
  • Budget (2009) 1100 MCHF
  • 20 Member States:Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
  • 1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania
  • 8 Observers to Council:India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco



CERN\'s mission: to build particle accelerators

Accelerator chain at CERN, a complex business


CERN site

CERN 2nd site

CERN main site

CH - F Border

SPS accelerator

Geneva Airport

LHC accelerator


The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the most powerful instrument ever built to investigate particles properties.

  • Four gigantic underground caverns to host the huge detectors
  • The highest energy of any accelerator in the world
  • The most intense beams of colliding particles
  • It will operate at a temperature colder than outer space

The LHC: what it will look like

The LHC will start operation in October 2009. It will certainly change our view of the Universe

preparing the lhc
Preparing the LHC

27 km circumference

100 m underground

SM18 Magnets

Test Facility


Particle accelerator. How it works

Polarité négative

À un instant

Le champ électrique

Ligne de champ électrique entre électrodes

Groupe d’électrons entre deux électrodes est accéléré

Électron (négatif) accéléré

Un peu après


Groupe d’électrons dérivent dans le tube



Encore un peu après

Générateur de tension

Polarité positive

Groupe d’électrons à nouveau accélérées

Électrodes plus longs, car électrons vont plus vite

1er terme de la loi de Lorentz

Hendrik Lorentz


Accélération linéaire: - La particule avance tout droit

Le champ électrique (tension) appliqué entre les deux plaques fait accélérer la particule selon une trajectoire rectiligne.

particle accelerator how it works


Trajectoire de la particule



Particle accelerator. How it works

Accélération circulaire: - La particule effectue une trajectoire courbe

Le champ magnétique crée par l’ aimant fait courber la particule

2ème terme de la loi de Lorentz

Hendrik Lorentz


the synchrotron accelerator
The Synchrotron accelerator

Le synchrotron – un accélérateur circulaire









Methods of Particle Physics

1) Concentrate energy on particles (accelerator)

2) Collide particles (recreate conditions after Big Bang)

3) Identify created particles in

Detector (search for new clues)


The constituents of matter

Today’s periodic system of the fundamental building blocks

The Atom’s Nucleus:

Proton: 2/3 + 2/3 – 1/3

Neutron: 2/3 – 1/3 – 1/3


We don\'t know everything!

Why three generations?

There are three "sets" of quark pairs and lepton pairs. Each "set" of these particles is called a generation, or family. Each set of quark and lepton charge types is called a generation of matter (charges +2/3, -1/3, 0, and -1 as you go down each generation). The generations are organized by increasing mass.


We don\'t know everything!


Some physicists attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have come to a startling prediction: every fundamental matter particle should have a massive "shadow" force carrier particle, and every force carrier should have a massive "shadow" matter particle. This relationship between matter particles and force carriers is called supersymmetry. For example, for every type of quark there may be a type of particle called a "squark."

No supersymmetric particle has yet been found, but experiments are underway at CERN and Fermilab to detect supersymmetric partner particles.


We don\'t know everything!

Higgs boson?

The Standard Model cannot explain why a particle has a certain mass. For example, both the photon and the W particle are force carrier particles: why is the photon massless and the W particle massive?

Physicists have theorized the existence of the so-called Higgs field, which in theory interacts with other particles to give them mass. The Higgs field requires a particle, the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson has not been observed, but physicists are looking for it with great enthusiasm.

The LHC will help solving all these unsolved mysteries

higgs signature at the lhc
Higgs signature at the LHC

The two proton beams at the LHC will collide head-on 800 million times per second

We expect only 1 Higgs in

1,000,000,000,000 events


Evolution of CERN computing needsCPU capacity 1998-2010

Other experiments

LHC experiments

Moore’s law

10K SI95 = 1200 cpu

The number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every year and half


The GRID: a possible solution to CERN computing needs

The LHC computing GRID is a project funded by the European Union. The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis

  • CERN is the largest laboratory for particle physics research in the world
  • It was founded 57 years ago and has built the most powerful particle accelerator in the world in 2008
  • The particle physics studies the matter in its smallest dimension and deepens the human being’s understanding about the nature
  • Research at CERN advances the development of technology, e.g. WWW was invented at CERN at the end of 1980’s
  • Welcome to CERN, we wish you have a pleasant visit