Today’s Schedule of Your Visit. Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min) -- João BENTO A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min) A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours). European Organization for Nuclear Research. What and where is CERN?
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Presentation about CERN (~ 20 min)
-- João BENTO
A short film about CERN and particle physics (~ 10 min)
A visit to CERN facilities (~ 1-2 hours)
What and where is CERN?
What does CERN do and how does CERN do it?
LHC (The Large Hadron Collider) and its 4 experiments
Particle physics and standard model
Spin-off of the particle physics (e.g. WWW was invented at CERN)
1954: Convention establishing the Organization - original signatures
2004: The 20 member states
Accelerator chain at CERN, a complex business
CERN 2nd site
CERN main site
CH - F Border
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be the most powerful instrument ever built to investigate particles properties.
The LHC will start operation in October 2009. It will certainly change our view of the Universe
27 km circumference
100 m underground
À un instant
Le champ électrique
Ligne de champ électrique entre électrodes
Groupe d’électrons entre deux électrodes est accéléré
Électron (négatif) accéléré
Un peu après
Groupe d’électrons dérivent dans le tube
Encore un peu après
Générateur de tension
Groupe d’électrons à nouveau accélérées
Électrodes plus longs, car électrons vont plus vite
1er terme de la loi de Lorentz
Accélération linéaire: - La particule avance tout droit
Le champ électrique (tension) appliqué entre les deux plaques fait accélérer la particule selon une trajectoire rectiligne.
Le synchrotron – un accélérateur circulaire
AIMANT DE COURBURE
CHAMBRE À VIDE
1) Concentrate energy on particles (accelerator)
2) Collide particles (recreate conditions after Big Bang)
3) Identify created particles in
Detector (search for new clues)
Today’s periodic system of the fundamental building blocks
The Atom’s Nucleus:
Proton: 2/3 + 2/3 – 1/3
Neutron: 2/3 – 1/3 – 1/3
Why three generations?
There are three "sets" of quark pairs and lepton pairs. Each "set" of these particles is called a generation, or family. Each set of quark and lepton charge types is called a generation of matter (charges +2/3, -1/3, 0, and -1 as you go down each generation). The generations are organized by increasing mass.
Some physicists attempting to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have come to a startling prediction: every fundamental matter particle should have a massive "shadow" force carrier particle, and every force carrier should have a massive "shadow" matter particle. This relationship between matter particles and force carriers is called supersymmetry. For example, for every type of quark there may be a type of particle called a "squark."
No supersymmetric particle has yet been found, but experiments are underway at CERN and Fermilab to detect supersymmetric partner particles.
The Standard Model cannot explain why a particle has a certain mass. For example, both the photon and the W particle are force carrier particles: why is the photon massless and the W particle massive?
Physicists have theorized the existence of the so-called Higgs field, which in theory interacts with other particles to give them mass. The Higgs field requires a particle, the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson has not been observed, but physicists are looking for it with great enthusiasm.
The LHC will help solving all these unsolved mysteries
The two proton beams at the LHC will collide head-on 800 million times per second
We expect only 1 Higgs in
10K SI95 = 1200 cpu
The number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every year and half
The LHC computing GRID is a project funded by the European Union. The objective is to build the next generation computing infrastructure providing intensive computation and analysis