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Joan Pope. Goals of the CEM. Expand, update, and replace the SPM Practical and easy to use State-of-the-art technical guidance document for coastal flooding, navigation, and shore protection projects Include basic principles of coastal processes

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Joan pope

Joan Pope


Goals of the cem

Goals of the CEM

  • Expand, update, and replace the SPM

  • Practical and easy to use

  • State-of-the-art technical guidance document for coastal flooding, navigation, and shore protection projects

  • Include basic principles of coastal processes

  • Include methods for computing coastal planning, design, construction, and maintenance parameters

  • Integrate computer-based and field data collection tools with the fundamentals of good engineering practices

  • “…..written at a level suitable for USACE District, BS-level engineering graduate who has no advanced academic training in coastal engineering.”


What s new

What’s new?

  • Spectral waves

  • Harbor and navigation design

  • Coastal geology

  • Dredging and disposal

  • Sediment prediction and management

  • Structure inspection, repair, and rehab

  • Wetlands and protected locations

  • Environmental enhancements

  • Monitoring and maintenance

  • Risk and uncertainty

  • Numerical simulation and modeling technology

  • Beach fill design

  • Functional design emphasis

  • Project development process, ………etc…….etc…..etc.


Joan pope

http://bigfoot.wes.army.mil/cem001.html


Outline

OUTLINE

  • PART I: Introduction

  • PART II: Coastal Hydrodynamics

  • PART III: Coastal Sediment Processes

  • PART IV: Coastal Geology

  • PART V: Coastal Project Planning & Design

  • PART VI: Design of Coastal Project Elements


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  • Water wave mechanics

  • Meteorology and wave climate

  • Estimation of nearshore waves

  • Surf zone hydrodynamics

  • Water levels and long waves

  • Hydrodynamics of tidal inlets

  • Harbor Hydrodynamics

  • Hydrodynamic analysis and design conditions


Water wave mechanics part ii 1

Linear Wave Principles

Other Wave Theories

Korteweg and deVries and Boussinesq

Fourier Approximation – Fenton’s theory

Irregular Wave Analysis

Directional Wave Spectra

Random Wave Simulation

Water Wave Mechanics Part II-1


Meteorology and wave climate part ii 2

Meteorology and Wave ClimatePart II-2

  • Estimating Marine and Coastal Winds

    • No significant changes, as per SPM 1984

    • Winds from near-surface observations

    • Winds from pressure fields and weather maps

    • Modification for

      • Level

      • Duration

      • Overland or overwater

      • Air-sea temperature stability


Estimation of nearshore waves part ii 3

ESTIMATION OF NEARSHORE WAVESPart II-3

Refraction, diffraction, shoaling, breaking, dissipation due to friction, dissipation due to percolation, additional growth due to winds, wave-current interactions, wave-wave interactions


Three classic cases of wave transformation

1. A large storm generates deepwater waves that propagate across shallow water while the waves continue to grow due to wind

2. A large storm generates waves in a remote area and as they cross shallow water with negligible wind they propagate to the site as swell

3. Wind blows over a shallow water fetch and as the waves grow they interact with the bottom

Types 1 and 3 require numerical model whereas 2 can be approximated using a monochromatic wave

Three Classic Cases of Wave Transformation


Rcpwave

RCPWAVE

  • Based on Mild-Slope equation

  • Includes wave breaking (first occurrence)

  • Consistent with theories used in calculation of longshore sediment

  • transport and shoreline change

  • Suitable for regions: 10’s of km

  • Grid resolution: fractions of wave lengths (1/10 or smaller)

  • Solution technique: finite difference

  • Neglects reflections off of structures and rapid changes in bathymetry

  • Output gives wave height and direction variability with changing

  • water levels


Refdif

REFDIF

  • Based on Mild Slope – wave current model (Kirby (1984))

  • Simple breaking criteria (H = 0.78 d)

  • Includes damping due to Bottom boundary layer; Sand-bed percolation; Turbulent bottom boundary layer

  • Wave non-linearity

  • Smooth correction to Stokes for shallow water

  • Numerical noise filter

  • Suitable for regions: 10’s of km

  • Grid resolution: 5 to 6 grid points per wavelength (optimum)

  • Solution technique: finite difference

  • Neglects reflections off of structures and rapid changes in bathymetry


Stwave

  • Steady state Spectral Model

  • Solves complete radiative transfer equation and includes

    • Propagation Effects – refraction, diffraction, shoaling, wave-current

    • Source term effects – breaking, wind, wave-wave

  • Deals with stochastic wave components so suitable

  • over very large distances

  • Can also incorporate phase information over short distances

  • near discontinuities such as structures

  • Assumptions

    • Nearshore transformations dominated by conservative processes

    • (refraction, shoaling and diffraction)

    • Predictions based on uni-directional monochromatic wave theories

    • Can provide solutions equivalent to behaviour of directional spectra

STWAVE


Joan pope

Advanced Model Limitations

Almost all of these models are regularly used to simulate conditions

outside a strict interpretation of the limits, with the results often

effectively accurate

CEM specified Major Limitations

RCPWAVE – inaccurate for wave crossing behind shoals or in the

vicinity of structures. Wave approach not too OBLIQUE

REFDIF– should not be used with highly oblique waves

STWAVE – under-represent wave focusing for narrow swell


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SURF ZONE HYDRODYNAMICS Part II-4


Joan pope

SURF ZONE HYDRODYNAMICS Part II-4

Breaker Criteria – Irregular Waves

H rms = 0.42 d

or

Hmo = 0.6 d


Water levels and long waves part ii 5

Water Levels and Long Waves Part II-5

  • Water Surface Elevation DatumNEW

  • Seiches - as in SPM 84

  • Modeling of Long Wave HydrodynamicsNEW

    • Physical Models

    • Numerical Models (ADCIRC)


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Hydrodynamic Analysis and Design Part II-8

  • Analysis of Key Meteorological and Hydrodynamic Processes

    • Extreme wave analysis

    • Storms

    • Persistence

    • Long Waves

    • Water Level Climate


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  • Sediment Properties

  • Longshore Transport

  • Cross-shore Transport

  • Wind-blown Transport

  • Cohesive shores

  • Outside the Surf Zone (Shore-face)


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  • Terminology

  • Environments

  • Classification and Morphology

  • Morphodynamics


How the cem will be used

How the CEM will be used…

Part II – Hydrodynamics

Part III - Sediments

Part IV - Geology

(Part V)

Problem Identification

Engineering Process

Alternative Solutions

Site Characterization

Design Conditions

Project Development

Part VI

Design Components

Structural Elements

Materials

Construction

O&M


Engineering parts v and vi

Engineering Parts V and VI

Include:

  • Planning and design process

  • Problem definitions

  • Site characterization and design conditions

  • Functional performance

  • Risk and uncertainty

  • Empirical design techniques

  • Analytical procedures per design element

  • Case examples


Joan pope

  • Planning & Design Process

  • Site Characterization

  • Shore Protection Projects

  • Beach Fill Design

  • Navigation Projects

  • Inlets/Harbors

  • Environmental Enhancement

  • Federal Role in Hazard Mitigation


Part v 1 planning and design process

Part V.1 – Planning and Design Process

Six Major Planning Steps

Generic Design Chart

Planning Coordination Requirements

Design Constraints

Data Needs & Sources

The process of developing a coastal project must be iterativeto ensure that the final product is optimumfrom both the technical and economic viewpoints acceptable to the various levels of decision makers and all project partners.


Joan pope

Getting Started

  • “What is the problem?”***

  • To achieve a successful coastal project plan and design requires that the engineer must start with a completely open mind, one without preconceived notions of the ultimate solution or a specific solution to advocate.

***“What is the project trying to accomplish?”(Quantify expectations!)


Joan pope

Project Need

Project Problem Statement

CP Module

Damages

Quantify w/o Project Condition

Is the Problem Statement Still Valid

Yes

Abandon

Project

Exit

CP Module

Simple Functional Analysis and Identification of Alternatives

No

Yes

Environmental

Economic,

Political,

Aesthetic

Constraints

Yes

Did You Fulfill All of

Problem Statement?

No

No

Modify

Project

Problem

Statement

Yes

Is Federal Participation Justified?

No

Yes

Economics

Select Alternative

Generic Project Development Chart


Joan pope

Breakwater

Non-Structural

Seawall

Other

Dredging, etc.

Do Nothing

Environmental and Economic Constraints

Modify

Functional Design?

Select/Modify Functional Design

CP Module

Test Functional Design

Is Functional Design OK?

Continue to Figure V-2-2


Joan pope

Design Constraints

  • Scientific and Engineering Understanding of Nature

  • The CEM emphasizes the understanding and ability to analytically and numerically model nature.

  • 2. Economics

  • 3. Environmental

  • 4.Institutional, Political (Social), Legal

  • 5.Aesthetics


The cp module

The “CP Module”

SBAS

ADCIRC

Coastal Process Module, is defined as a repository of physical data and analysis tools relevant to the coastal problem. Wind, waves, currents, water levels, bathymetry, geomorphology, stratigraphy, sediment characteristics, sediment transport processes, etc. and the analysis tools (mainly numerical models) make up the CP Module.

A fully 3D, dynamic model to simulate coastal processes at different scales for different settings does not exist.

STWAVE

GENESIS

SBEACH

ETC.


Costs and benefits

Costs

Initial Costs

Maintenance Costs

Alteration/Removal Costs

Total, Life-Cycle Cost

Design Life

Interest Rate

Damage

Failure

Balanced Design

Storm damage reduction & mitigation

Ecosystems restoration.

Recreation and tourism benefits

Waterfront property (greater value and generates higher tax revenue).

Coastal, beach related travel and tourism industry.

Costs and Benefits


Joan pope

Storm Damage Reduction Benefits Methodology

  • Inventory structures.

  • Calculate depreciated replacement cost of the structures and content value.

  • Obtain the water level, storm frequency-of-occurrence data for the site and accompanying wave and shoreline erosion data.

  • Obtain and run storm damage calculation models.

  • Apply the models for without project conditions and for considered alternatives and sub-alternatives.


Joan pope

Sea Level Rise

  • Over the last 100 years – 30 cm (3mm / yr) on the East Coast and 11 cm (1.1mm / yr) along the West Coast.

  • Gulf of Mexico coast is high variable – 100 cm in the Mississippi delta plain to 20 cm along Florida’s West Coast.

  • Statistics related to and impact of sea level rise are debated regularly in scientific circles.

  • Existing rates of mean sea level rise have not been a severe economic constraint in shore protection design.

  • Anthropogenic effects (ie; jettied tidal inlets) causing downdrift, beach erosion have resulted in larger impacts.

  • Long-term, relative changes in sea level can be incorporated into storm surge analysis.


Data needs and sources

Data Needs and Sources

…etc.


Joan pope

(A) CHANGES TO THE NATURAL, PHYSICAL

SYSTEM

APPROACH

Class

2. Beach Stabilization Structures & Facilities

Sills&

(Vegetation)

Groundwater

Drainage

Type

Breakwaters

Groins

Headland

Detached

Single

System

Tuned

Shoreline

Normal

Angled

Single

System

Notched

Permeable

Adjustable

Shaped (T or L)

Geometry

(Configuration)

or

Location

Shoreline

Submerged

Perched beach

(Submerged

Aquatic

Vegetation)

Beach drain

Bluff dewatering

Interior drainage

Rock

Precast concrete units

Sheet-pile (steel, timber, etc.)

System of pipes,

pumps with sumps

Construction

Material

Geotextiles bags


Joan pope

APPROACH

(A) CHANGES IN MAN’S SYSTEM

Class

4. Adaptation & Accommodation

Flood Proofing

Zoning

Retreat

Type

Elevated

Structures

Raise Grade

Sandbags

Flow Diversion

Individuals

Communities

Infrastructure

Move Structures

Geometry

(Configuration)

or

Location

Setbacks

Land use

restrictions

Public Lands

(Institutional)

Construction

Material

Single-Family

homes on

timber piles


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  • Types & Functions of Structures

  • Site Specific Conditions

  • Materials & Construction

  • Fundamentals

  • Reliability

  • Case Examples

  • Repair/Rehab & Modification


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Fundamentals of Design

Part VI-5-2

  • Wave Runup and Overtopping

  • Wave Reflection and Transmission


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Effect of Permeability


Joan pope

Surf Similarity Parameter


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Wave Runup- Smooth Impermeable Slopes

gr - Influence of surface roughness

gb - Influence of fronting berm

gh - Influence of shallow water

gb- Influence of approaching wave angle


Joan pope

Runup on Rock Armored Slopes

Impermeable Rock Slopes

Coefficients

Permeable Rock Slopes


Joan pope

Wave Overtopping

Definition of freeboard

Wave Overtopping...

  • Occurs where the highest runup levels exceed the freeboard

  • Unevenly distributed in space and time

  • Usually expressed as time-averaged overtopping discharge

  • Discharge from a single wave can be 100 times average


Joan pope

Wave Reflection

Seelig Equation

Structure

a

b

With


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Wave Transmission

Transmission Coefficient


Forms of release

FORMS OF RELEASE

  • USACE ENGINEERING MANUAL

    • Official EM on Corps website

    • Non-interactive PDF version

    • Currently older-versions of Parts III and IV only

  • INTER-ACTIVE ELECTRONIC VERSION

    • Developed by non-government partner (Veri-tech) as commercial product

    • Parts I-IV newly released

  • PUBLISHED HARDCOPY

    • Government Printing Office

    • Entire document to be released

      at one time (2002)

    • Limited updates


Status

STATUS

  • PART I: Introduction ON WEB

    • Includes definitions, history, diversity

  • PART 2: HYDRODYNAMICS ON WEB

    • EC-1110-2-289 Released 9/96 as hardcopy

  • PART 3: SEDIMENT PROCESSES

    • EC-1110-2-292 Released 3/98 on web as PDF file

    • Revised and in final format

    • Minor figure improvements

  • PART 4: GEOLOGY ON WEB

    • EM 1110-2-1810 released 1/95 as hardcopy

Glossary of Terms –in draft form, under review


Status continuing

PART V:Project Planning and Design

DONE: CH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 7

FINAL REVISIONS

6 (Inlets)

8 (Federal Requirements)

PART VI: Design of Project Elements

DONE: CH 2, 3, 4, & 5

FINAL REVISIONS

6 (Risk/Reliability)

SOME WRITING LEFT

7 (Case Examples)

8 (Repair & Rehab)

1 (Intro)

STATUS (continuing)


Future initatives

FUTURE INITATIVES

  • FINISH THE darn THING!

  • RELEASE USACE ON-LINE VERSION

  • PUBLISH GPO HARD-COPY VERSION

  • CONTINUING TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND UPDATES

  • COORDINATION WITH CRDA PARTNER

  • USER WORKSHOPS/CLASSES

  • EDITORICAL CORRECTIONS

  • INCORPORATE R&D ADVANCES

  • APPENDICES & NEW SECTIONS AS REQUIRED


Joan pope

….the end….and

..the beginning.


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