New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts
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New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts. Crystal Martin, Colleen Schwartz, Taro Sato, Victor Sciortino (UC Santa Barbara). Collaborators: Akimi Fujita, Tim Heckman, Chip Kobulnicky, Fabian Walter, Lee Armus, Eliot Quartaert, Todd Thompson, Norm Murray.

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New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts

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New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts

Crystal Martin, Colleen Schwartz, Taro Sato, Victor Sciortino (UC Santa Barbara)

Collaborators: Akimi Fujita, Tim Heckman, Chip Kobulnicky, Fabian Walter, Lee Armus, Eliot Quartaert, Todd Thompson, Norm Murray

Dark Matter Density Field: 100 Mpc box at z=2 , Nagamine, Springel, & Hernquist `04


Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Wb = 0.04

W*~ 0.1Wb

  • Does Feedback Shape the Galaxy Luminosity Function?

  • How Far do Winds Spread Heavy Elements?

WHIM: 105 -107 K

Cen & Ostriker 1999


Measuring Supernova Feedback

Keck I&II

Chandra X-Ray Observatory

  • Radio 21 cm Line  Neutral Interstellar Gas at 102 - 103 K

  • Optical Emission Lines  Photoionized Gas at 104 K

  • X-Rays  Thermal Emission from 106 K Gas

NOAO/AURA


Emission Line Observations  Multiphase Winds

Suchkov 95,96

Ott, Martin, & Walter 2003

Stevens et al. 2003

(i)

Martin, Kobulnicky, & Heckman 2002

Kobulnicky & Martin 2004


Martin, Kobulnicky, & Heckman 2002

Energy (keV)

Metal-Enriched Winds


SPEED

LIMIT

VMAX=1.7 CS

650 km/s

Tremonti et al 2004

Hot Gas Escapes from Dwarf Starbursts

Cs = 380 km/s

Rotation Speed 

Martin 1999, Heckman et al 2000, Martin 2004


Henize 2-10

X-rays: Kobulnicky & Martin 2005

STIS UV: Schwartz & Martin 2005

170 km/s


IRAS 17208-0014

Doppler Shift = 400 km/s

Rest V

IRAS 11506+1331

V = -435km/s

V = -96 km/s

Strickland

Absorption Lines Are Sensitive to Diffuse Gas

Keck ESI Spectra of Na I Doublet


Slower Outflow Speeds in Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

Keck HIRES Spectra near Na I Doublet

 23 km/s

Schwartz & Martin 2004

Slower Outflows in Dwarf Starbursts

34 km/s


Vterm = 650 km/s

AGN?

Na I Velocities

Martin 2005


Martin 2005b


M ~ 1.1e9 Msun


Angular Momentum Conservation?


How Much Mass in Outflowing Cool Gas?

IRAS1720-03: Can Supernovae Power the Outflow? YES

Measure K.E. > 7e56 ergs

SFR ==> E_SN (@10 Myr) ~ 30e56 ergs, or (@100 Myr) 1700e56 ergs


Significant Fraction of Disk Gas in Flow

10%


Supernova Provide Sufficient Energy

10%

SFR X 10 Myr


NaI Column Density vs Position along Slit

320 Msun/yr

M ~ 2.9e9 Msun

450 Msun/yr

M ~ 1.8e8 Msun

250 Msun/yr

M ~ 7.1e7 Msun


Large Variations in Outflow Mass

Surprise! N(NaI) not correlated with SFR.

Ionization Effects?

Dynamical Age

Mass of Cold Outflow

SFR


Merger-Driven Winds vs. Starburst Winds

  • Outflow covers the entire disk.

  • Exhibits disk-like, or orbit-like, rotation

  • Variation in mass/energy linked to merger age

Do Shocks from Encounters Generate Hot Gas Reservoir?

Cox et al 2004

Continuous Starburst:

e.g. IRAS1056+24

10 Myr Ew = 3e57 ergs

100 Myr Ew = 1.7e59 ergs


With Winds

Without Winds

Theuns et al. 2002


How Far do the Metals Go?

dN/dz ~ n0 c / H0

  • Dwarf Galaxies @ Present Epoch

  • Pressure confined at R ~ 130 kpc (SFR/0.1 M0/yr)1/3.

  • Intervening OVI ALS are 200 - 270 kpc from 0.1L*

  • galaxies (Danforth & Shull 2005; Stocke et al 2005)

  • Ultraluminous Starbursts(?) @ Higher Redshift

  • (vcirc = 250 km/s, SFR=100 Mo/yr, NH=5 x 1020 cm-2, L=1012)


Feedback in Massive Galaxies -- Cool Outflows

  • SB/AGN Ram Pressure

    Decelerates at R ~ 19 kpc

    Turn around at very large R!

  • SB/AGN Radiation Pressure

    Decelerates at R ~ 4 kpc

    Turn around at R ~ 32 kpc

  • Merger-driven Outflow ==> ?

ULIGs are rare ==> small dN/dz

If all galaxies are briefly ULIGs, still need contribution from 0.01L* galaxies to match dN/dz of strong metal line systems.


Summary: Feedback in Different Mass Halos

Reionization

Hot Starburst Winds

Momentum-Driven Winds (SNe + Rad.)

AGN?

Galaxies

Halos

Radio Galaxies?

Number Density

  • Why Do Small Halos AND Large Halos Fail to Host Galaxies?

  • Cooling Time

  • Feedback

Luminosity

Benson et al. 2003


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