New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts
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New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts. Crystal Martin, Colleen Schwartz, Taro Sato, Victor Sciortino (UC Santa Barbara). Collaborators: Akimi Fujita, Tim Heckman, Chip Kobulnicky, Fabian Walter, Lee Armus, Eliot Quartaert, Todd Thompson, Norm Murray.

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New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts

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New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

New Views of Outflows from Ultraluminous Starbursts

Crystal Martin, Colleen Schwartz, Taro Sato, Victor Sciortino (UC Santa Barbara)

Collaborators: Akimi Fujita, Tim Heckman, Chip Kobulnicky, Fabian Walter, Lee Armus, Eliot Quartaert, Todd Thompson, Norm Murray

Dark Matter Density Field: 100 Mpc box at z=2 , Nagamine, Springel, & Hernquist `04


New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Wb = 0.04

W*~ 0.1Wb

  • Does Feedback Shape the Galaxy Luminosity Function?

  • How Far do Winds Spread Heavy Elements?

WHIM: 105 -107 K

Cen & Ostriker 1999


Measuring supernova feedback

Measuring Supernova Feedback

Keck I&II

Chandra X-Ray Observatory

  • Radio 21 cm Line  Neutral Interstellar Gas at 102 - 103 K

  • Optical Emission Lines  Photoionized Gas at 104 K

  • X-Rays  Thermal Emission from 106 K Gas

NOAO/AURA


Emission line observations multiphase winds

Emission Line Observations  Multiphase Winds

Suchkov 95,96

Ott, Martin, & Walter 2003

Stevens et al. 2003

(i)

Martin, Kobulnicky, & Heckman 2002

Kobulnicky & Martin 2004


Metal enriched winds

Martin, Kobulnicky, & Heckman 2002

Energy (keV)

Metal-Enriched Winds


Hot gas escapes from dwarf starbursts

SPEED

LIMIT

VMAX=1.7 CS

650 km/s

Tremonti et al 2004

Hot Gas Escapes from Dwarf Starbursts

Cs = 380 km/s

Rotation Speed 

Martin 1999, Heckman et al 2000, Martin 2004


Henize 2 10

Henize 2-10

X-rays: Kobulnicky & Martin 2005

STIS UV: Schwartz & Martin 2005

170 km/s


Absorption lines are sensitive to diffuse gas

IRAS 17208-0014

Doppler Shift = 400 km/s

Rest V

IRAS 11506+1331

V = -435km/s

V = -96 km/s

Strickland

Absorption Lines Are Sensitive to Diffuse Gas

Keck ESI Spectra of Na I Doublet


Slower outflow speeds in dwarf starburst galaxies

Slower Outflow Speeds in Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

Keck HIRES Spectra near Na I Doublet

 23 km/s

Schwartz & Martin 2004

Slower Outflows in Dwarf Starbursts

34 km/s


Na i velocities

Vterm = 650 km/s

AGN?

Na I Velocities

Martin 2005


New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

Martin 2005b


New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

M ~ 1.1e9 Msun


Angular momentum conservation

Angular Momentum Conservation?


How much mass in outflowing cool gas

How Much Mass in Outflowing Cool Gas?

IRAS1720-03: Can Supernovae Power the Outflow? YES

Measure K.E. > 7e56 ergs

SFR ==> E_SN (@10 Myr) ~ 30e56 ergs, or (@100 Myr) 1700e56 ergs


Significant fraction of disk gas in flow

Significant Fraction of Disk Gas in Flow

10%


Supernova provide sufficient energy

Supernova Provide Sufficient Energy

10%

SFR X 10 Myr


New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

NaI Column Density vs Position along Slit

320 Msun/yr

M ~ 2.9e9 Msun

450 Msun/yr

M ~ 1.8e8 Msun

250 Msun/yr

M ~ 7.1e7 Msun


Large variations in outflow mass

Large Variations in Outflow Mass

Surprise! N(NaI) not correlated with SFR.

Ionization Effects?

Dynamical Age

Mass of Cold Outflow

SFR


Merger driven winds vs starburst winds

Merger-Driven Winds vs. Starburst Winds

  • Outflow covers the entire disk.

  • Exhibits disk-like, or orbit-like, rotation

  • Variation in mass/energy linked to merger age

Do Shocks from Encounters Generate Hot Gas Reservoir?

Cox et al 2004

Continuous Starburst:

e.g. IRAS1056+24

10 Myr Ew = 3e57 ergs

100 Myr Ew = 1.7e59 ergs


New views of outflows from ultraluminous starbursts

With Winds

Without Winds

Theuns et al. 2002


How far do the metals go

How Far do the Metals Go?

dN/dz ~ n0 c / H0

  • Dwarf Galaxies @ Present Epoch

  • Pressure confined at R ~ 130 kpc (SFR/0.1 M0/yr)1/3.

  • Intervening OVI ALS are 200 - 270 kpc from 0.1L*

  • galaxies (Danforth & Shull 2005; Stocke et al 2005)

  • Ultraluminous Starbursts(?) @ Higher Redshift

  • (vcirc = 250 km/s, SFR=100 Mo/yr, NH=5 x 1020 cm-2, L=1012)


Feedback in massive galaxies cool outflows

Feedback in Massive Galaxies -- Cool Outflows

  • SB/AGN Ram Pressure

    Decelerates at R ~ 19 kpc

    Turn around at very large R!

  • SB/AGN Radiation Pressure

    Decelerates at R ~ 4 kpc

    Turn around at R ~ 32 kpc

  • Merger-driven Outflow ==> ?

ULIGs are rare ==> small dN/dz

If all galaxies are briefly ULIGs, still need contribution from 0.01L* galaxies to match dN/dz of strong metal line systems.


Summary feedback in different mass halos

Summary: Feedback in Different Mass Halos

Reionization

Hot Starburst Winds

Momentum-Driven Winds (SNe + Rad.)

AGN?

Galaxies

Halos

Radio Galaxies?

Number Density

  • Why Do Small Halos AND Large Halos Fail to Host Galaxies?

  • Cooling Time

  • Feedback

Luminosity

Benson et al. 2003


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