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IS Metrics for C2 Processes. Working Group 3 Brief Team Leaders: Steve Soules Dr. Mark Mandeles. Charge to the C2 Processes Working Group. Objective: Develop metrics to measure the quality of command and control processes

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Is metrics for c2 processes l.jpg

IS Metrics for C2 Processes

Working Group 3

Brief

Team Leaders:

Steve Soules

Dr. Mark Mandeles


Charge to the c2 processes working group l.jpg
Charge to the C2 Processes Working Group

  • Objective: Develop metrics to measure the quality of command and control processes

  • Examine historic examples of the impact information technology has had on command and control processes.

  • Identify common factors that can be used to measure the quality of the command and control processes, including speed of command, correctness of decisions, and effects of dissemination of commands.

  • Review the results of the other three Groups. Apply their findings to the command and control factors to begin to define command and control process changes that could better take advantage of information superiority improvements.

  • Define the metrics that can be used to capture the quality of the command and control processes.

  • Discuss ideas for potential futures areas of analysis.


Command control process definition l.jpg
Command & Control Process Definition

  • Working Group C2 Process Definition: The integration of organizations, systems and doctrine used by commanders to direct forces to accomplish missions

  • Examples of C2 Processes:

    • Command and Control by Direction

    • Command and Control by Negation

    • Centralized Command / Decentralized Execution

    • Autonomous Control (e.g., special operations or submarine operations)

    • Command and Control by Self Synchronization (for future: combat group makes its objectives)


C2 process metrics users l.jpg
C2 Process Metrics Users

  • Acquisition Analysts

  • Experiment/Exercise Analysts

  • Operations Analysts

  • M&S Developers

  • Seeking Metrics to evaluate if C2 Processes are:

    • - Operationally Sound

    • - Technically Feasible

    • - Cost Effective


C2 factors to consider in determining metrics l.jpg

Threats/Missions

Risks

Adaptive

Visualization

Speed of Command

Speed of Force Actions

Awareness

Shared Awareness

Synchronization

Confidence

Scale

Environment

Dissemination of Commands

Reach

Richness

Efficiency

Correctness

Completeness

Collaboration

Interaction

Human Factors

Experience

Fatigue

Stress

Initiative

Errors and Types of Errors

C2 Factors to Consider inDetermining Metrics


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Three Areas of C2 Process Evaluation

  • Performance of the C2 Process:

    • Ability of the process to Monitor / Understand / Develop / Predict

    • Ability of the process to Decide / Direct / Collaborate

  • Effectiveness of the C2 Process:

    • Ability to improve Force Synchronization

    • Ability to improve shared awareness

    • Ability to collaborate and interact in each of the process functions

  • Impact of the C2 Process on Force / Mission Effectiveness:

    • Satisfy mission objectives in an efficient manner


Source evidence based research heat analytic structure l.jpg

HEADQUARTERS

PREDICT CONSEQUENCES

DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

UNDERSTAND

DECIDE

MONITOR

DIRECT

C2 Process Functional Areas

Source: (Evidence Based Research)HEAT Analytic Structure

ENVIRONMENT:

- OWN & ENEMY FORCES

- PHYSICAL

- POLITICAL & ECONOMIC

QUERY

INFORM


How do you measure the performance effectiveness and impact of c2 processes l.jpg

W

CJTF

e

JOINT BATTLE

MANAGEMENT

JFACC

JFLCC

a

JFMCC

USAF

USMC

p

USN

USA

o

Autonomous

Control

n

s

How do you measure the performance, effectiveness and impact of C2 Processes?

Monitor

Command

by

Direction

Network

Command

by

Negation

Understand

“Power of Collaborative Interaction”

Execution

C2

Decide

Direct

Develop Alternatives

Predict Consequences

Synchronized

Command and

Control



Measuring the effectiveness of the c2 process l.jpg
Measuring the Effectiveness of the C2 Process

  • Ability to Synchronize Forces

  • Ability to gain knowledge rapidly to enhance awareness, build confidence and execute sound judgement

  • Ability to collaborate and interact

  • Ability to mitigate errors, e.g., incorrect target identification

    • C2 Errors

    • Friendly fire

    • Inadequate analysis, e.g., Chinese Embassy in Belgrade

    • Inappropriate information

    • System breakdowns or crashes


Measuring the impact of the c2 process on mission force effectiveness l.jpg
Measuring the Impact of the C2 Process on Mission / Force Effectiveness:

  • Complete mission objectives

    • Yes/No

  • Efficiently Complete mission objectives

    • Fewer Casualties

    • Faster Time

    • Fewer Leakers

    • Less Collateral Damage


Examples of metrics for mop s in the c2 functional areas l.jpg
Examples of Metrics for MOP’s in Effectiveness:the C2 Functional Areas

**Note:“accuracy” also implies its opposite -- “error”

ie. transmission error rate/“ground truth”




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C2 Process Evaluation Effectiveness:Sample Comparison Analysis


Example of graphing mop aggregate performance l.jpg
Example of Graphing Effectiveness:MOP Aggregate Performance

(Hrs)

Time

Richness

(% of Ground Truth)

C2 Poc #2

C2 Poc #1

**Note: This graph could

be integrated with the

the synchronization and

awareness graphs to show

integrated effects.

Reach

(# Of Forces Connected)


C2 process evaluation mop and moe conversion graph l.jpg
C2 Process Evaluation Effectiveness:MOP and MOE Conversion/Graph

  • Conversion factor: Score/Grade by range of performance: Value State Space

  • MOPs Relationship to MOEs: Influence Diagram/ Cause and effect analysis / Multi attribute utility analysis

  • Error Analysis: Tradeoff Between Type I and Type II Error

  • Graph: Richness, Reach, Time, Number of Objectives, Time to Objectives, Loss Exchange Ratio values from Score/Grade

  • Simulation as a Sensitivity Test


Example of graphing mop and moe aggregate evaluation l.jpg

(Hrs) Effectiveness:

(Hrs)

Time

Time

Reach

Richness

(# of Forces Connected)

(% of Ground Truth)

CP #1

CP #2

Agg MOE Value

Agg MOP Value

Time

(Value State Space)

(Value State Space)

Reach

Richness

(Ratio)

Loss Exchange

Missions Met

(#s)

MOP Value

MOE Value

Loss Exchange

Missions Met

Time

Example of GraphingMOP and MOE Aggregate Evaluation

Time

Reach

Richness

MOP Value

MOE Value

Loss Exchange

Missions Met

Time


Summary l.jpg
Summary Effectiveness:

  • Measuring C2 processes requires an evaluation of both the performance and the effectiveness of the process in meeting military objectives

  • The individual performance of interaction and collaboration enabled by future networks is difficult to measure but we should be able to capture its effects in conducting C2 functions

  • The MOPs and MOEs introduced should be further evaluated before being used in a limited objective experiment in a controlled situation as a starting point

  • What discussion/research needs to be accomplished next?


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