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SKULL. HUMAN SKULL. Consists of 22 bones 8 of these bones make up the cranium 14 form the facial skeleton. (also 6 tiny bones in the middle ear). The cranium encloses and protect the brain, and its surface provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

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Human skull
HUMAN SKULL

  • Consists of 22 bones

  • 8 of these bones make up the cranium

  • 14 form the facial skeleton.

  • (also 6 tiny bones in the middle ear)


Parts of the skull cranium

The cranium encloses and protect the brain, and its surface provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

There are 8 bones that make up the cranium.

Frontal Bone

Parietal Bones (2)

Occipital Bone

Temporal Bones (2)

Sphenoid Bone

Ethmoid Bone

PARTS OF THE SKULLCRANIUM


Frontal bone
FRONTAL BONE provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • Forms the anterior portion of the skull above the eyes, including the forehead, the roof of the nasal cavity and roof of the orbits of the eyes.


Parietal bones
Parietal Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

The parietal bones (2) form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.


Occipital bone
Occipital Bone provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • The occipital bone joins the parietal bones.

  • It forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium.

  • A large opening on its lower surface houses nerve fibers from the brain that pass to the spinal cord.


Temporal bones
Temporal Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • A Temporal bones (2) on each side of the skull joins the parietal bone along a squamosal suture.

  • Forms the sides and the base of the cranium.

  • House the internal ear.

  • Notice how far it goes around the face before it meets the zygomatic bone “cheek”


Temporal bones1
Temporal Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.


Sphenoid bones
Sphenoid Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • The sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the anterior portion of the cranium.

  • Helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull and the floors and sides of the orbits.

  • This bone really has three different views… Laterial—anterior to the temporal bone

  • Anterior- the back of the eye sockets

  • Inferior- looks like a butterfly.


Sphenoid bones1
Sphenoid Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • This bone really has three different views…

  • Lateral—anterior to the temporal bone

  • Anterior- the back of the eye sockets

  • Inferior- looks like a butterfly.


Sphenoid bones inferior view
Sphenoid Bones provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible. (Inferior View)


Ethmoid bone
Ethmoid Bone provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.

  • Located in front of the sphenoid bone.

  • Forms part of roof and walls of nasal cavity.

  • Floor of cranium, and walls of orbits.

  • In the back of the orbital cavity…longer bone


Ethmoid bone1
Ethmoid Bone provides attachments for muscles that make chewing and head movements possible.


Facial skeleton

The facial skeleton consists of 13 immovable bones and a movable lower jaw bone.

These bones provide basic shape of the face

Attachments for muscles that move the jaw and control facial expressions.

Facial Skeleton


Mandible
MANDIBLE movable lower jaw bone.

  • Lower jaw bone

  • A moveable bone held to the cranium by ligaments.

  • Horseshoe-shaped body with a flat ramus projecting upward at each end


Mandible1
MANDIBLE movable lower jaw bone.


Maxillary bones
MAXILLARY BONES movable lower jaw bone.

  • They form the upper jaw.

  • Together the form the keystone of the face.

  • They form anterior roof of mouth, floors of orbits, and floor of nasal cavity.

  • Contains aleveolar process, maxillary sinuses, palatine process.


Palatine bones

The L-shaped palatine bones are located behind the maxillae. movable lower jaw bone.

The horizontal portions form the posterior section of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity.

The perpendicular portions help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.

This is easier too see from the bottom view of the skull.

Palatine Bones


Zygomatic bones
ZYGOMATIC BONES movable lower jaw bone.

  • Responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes.

  • Help form the lateral walls and the floors of the orbits.

  • Again notice where it meets the temporal bone…called the Zygomatic Arch or the Zygomatic process of the Temporal


Lacrimal bones

A thin, scalelike structure located in the medial wall of each orbit between the ethmoid bone and the maxilla.

A groove in its anterior portion leads from the orbit to the nasal cavity, providing a pathway for a channel that carries tears from the eye to the nasal cavity.

Lacrimal Bones


Nasal bones
NASAL BONES each orbit between the ethmoid bone and the maxilla.

  • The nasal bones are long, thin, and nearly rectangular.

  • They lie side by side and are fused at the midline, where they form the bridge of the nose.

  • These bones are attachments for the cartilaginous tissue that forms the shape of the nose.


Vomer bone

The thin, flat vomer bone is located along the midline within the nasal cavity.

Posteriorly, it joins the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone Together they form the nasal septon.

Vomer bone


Inferior nasal cavity
Inferior Nasal Cavity within the nasal cavity.

  • The inferior nasal conchae are fragile, scroll-shaped bones attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.

  • Positioned below the superior and middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone.


Foramen
Foramen within the nasal cavity.

  • Foramen- An opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments.

  • You need to be able to identify the following…

    • Mental Foramen, Supraorbital Foramen

    • Infraorbital Foramen, Foramen Magnum


Foramen1
Foramen within the nasal cavity.

Supraorbital

foramen

(notch)

Infraorbital

foramen

Mental

foramen


Foramen2
Foramen within the nasal cavity.

Foramen magnum


Sutures
Sutures within the nasal cavity.

  • Suture- an interlocking line of union between bones

  • You need to be familiar with the following sutures….

    • Coronal Suture,

    • Lambdoidal Suture

    • Squamosal Suture

    • Sagittal Suture


Sutures within the nasal cavity.

Coronal suture

Squamous suture

Lambdoid

suture


Sutures within the nasal cavity.

Sagittal suture

Lambdoid

suture


Process
Process within the nasal cavity.

  • Process- a prominent projection on a bone

  • You need to familiar with the following…

    • Styloid Process

    • Mastoid Process

    • Coronoid Process


Process1
Process within the nasal cavity.

Mastoid process

Styloid process

Coronoid

process


Condyle
Condyle within the nasal cavity.

  • Condyle- is a rounded process that usually articulates with another bone

  • You need to be familiar with the following…

    • Mandibular Condyle

    • Occipital Condyle


Condyle1
Condyle within the nasal cavity.

Mandibular

condyle


Condyle2
Condyle within the nasal cavity.

Occipital

condyle


Inferior view
Inferior View within the nasal cavity.

Palatine bone

Zygomaticbone

Sphenoid bone

Vomer


For your information
For Your Information within the nasal cavity.

Zygomatic process

(Aka zygomatic arch

External acoustic canal


Ear bones
Ear Bones within the nasal cavity.

  • Malleus (2)- means hammer- shape of the bone

  • Incus(2)- means anvil- shape of bone

  • Stapes (2) means stirrup- shape of the bone

  • Don’t worry about identification of these on the skull…you cannot see them. Just recognize the names as bones of the inner ear.


What have we learned so far?? within the nasal cavity.

Coronal Suture

FrontalBone

SphenoidBone

ParietalBone

Ethmoid Bone

Temporal Bone

Lacrimal Bones

Lamboid

suture

Squamous suture

Nasal Bone

Occipital bone

ZygomaticBone

Maxilla

External Auditory Canal

Mastoid Process

Mandible

Styloid Process

Mandibular

condyle

Mental Foramen

Coronoid

process


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