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ABO/ Rh Blood Typing . Activity. ABO and Rh Blood Typing. ABO/ Rh is the most commonly used system for classifying blood type. It was developed in the late 1800’s by Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner.

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abo and rh blood typing
ABO and Rh Blood Typing
  • ABO/Rh is the most commonly used system for classifying blood type.
  • It was developed in the late 1800’s by Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner.
  • He noted that when human blood was transfused to other animals it would clump up (agglutinate).
  • Landsteiner realized that this effect with humans would be disastrous.
abo blood types
ABO Blood Types
  • By the early 1900’s Landsteiner discovered 2 distinct proteins (A and B) on the surface of human blood
  • He recognized 4 distinct blood types due to the presence or absence of these molecules
  • A Molecule – Type A Blood
  • B Molecule – Type B Blood
  • Both A and B Molecules – Type AB Blood
  • Neither A nor B Molecules – Type O Blood
abo antigens and antibodies
ABO Antigens and Antibodies
  • A and B proteins turn out to be Antigens
  • Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response in people.
  • VIP – Research indicated that people have specific Antibodies (substances that attack antigens in the immune response) in the plasma.
  • Type A Blood has Anti B - Type B Blood has Anti A
  • Type AB has neither antibody - Type O Blood has both A&B
consequences for blood
Consequences for Blood
  • Type A Blood (anti-B antibodies) would reject Type B Blood
  • Type B Blood (anti-A antibodies) would reject Type A Blood
  • Type O Blood (No antigens) – can be donated to anyone but only receive its own
  • Type AB Blood (Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies are present) – can only donate to its own but can receive from anyone
rh antigens
Rh Antigens
  • Landsteiner worked Alexander Wiener and they discovered that when blood from a Rhesus Monkey was transfused into a rabbit, the rabbit would produce antibodies that also attacked human blood.
  • The antibodies to the Rh antigens created the Rh factor. (Rhesus Monkey)
  • People with Rh antigens are Rh+
  • People without Rh antigens are Rh-
determining abo rh blood type
Determining ABO/Rh Blood Type
  • Easier than you think – remember
  • anti-A and anti-B determine ABO
  • anti-Rh determines + or –
  • All you need is blood samples and the antibodies to add to them (A, B, Rh)
  • You can eliminate possibilities based agglutination during the mixing.