Approaches to translation
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APPROACHES TO TRANSLATION. Wisnu Perbawa Kusuma 10220267 A2 (reguler) 2010. The Definition of Translation.

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APPROACHES TO TRANSLATION

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Approaches to translation

APPROACHES TO TRANSLATION

Wisnu Perbawa Kusuma

10220267

A2 (reguler) 2010


The definition of translation

The Definition of Translation

  • Catford (1965: 20) supports, “Translation is the replacement of the textual material in one language (the source language/ SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (the target language/ TL).”

  • Peter Newmark (1982:7) defines, “Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language.


The process of translation

The Process of translation

Nababan (1999: 25-28) describes the process of translation. The process is as follows :

  • Source Language Text Analysis

  • Transfer Meaning

  • Restructuring


The types of written translation

The Types of Written Translation

Roman Jakobson in Hatim and Munday makes a very important distinction between three types of written translation. They are :

  • Intralingual translation

  • Interlingual translation

  • Intersemiotic translation


Kinds of translation

Kinds of Translation

  • Word by Word Translation

  • Free Translation

  • Literal Translation

  • Dynamic translation

  • Esthetic-Poetic Translation

  • Ethnographic Translation

  • Linguistic Translation

  • Communicative Translation

  • Semantic translation


Text functions

Text Functions

  • THE EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION

    • Serious imaginative literature

    • Authoritative statements

    • Autobiography

  • THE INFORMATIVE FUNCTION

  • THE VOCATIVE FUNCTION

  • OTHER FUNCTIONS

    • The Aesthetic Function

    • The Phatic Function

    • The Metalingual Function


Varieties of general meaning

VARIETIES OF GENERAL MEANING

  • Linguistic Meaning

  • Referential

  • Intention

  • Performative

  • Inferential

  • Cultural

  • Connotative

  • Subjective

  • Semiotic


Translation equivalence

Translation Equivalence

There are types of equivalence defined by Nida, which are also called two basic orientations of translation. They are :

  • Formal correspondence

  • Dynamic equivalence

    • Grammatical equivalence

    • Textual equivalence

    • Pragmatic equivalence


Semantic and communicative translation

SEMANTIC AND COMMUNICATIVE TRANSLATION

  • Semantic Translation - "Semantic translation is closer, more literal; it gives highest priority to the meaning and form of the original, and is appropriate to translations of source texts that have high status, such as religious texts, legal texts, literature, perhaps ministerial speeches.“

  • Communicative Translation - "Communicative translation is freer, and gives priority to the effectiveness of the message to be communicated. It focuses on factors such as readability and naturalness, and is appropriate to translations of ?pragmatic? texts where the actual form of the original is not closely bound to its intended meaning. These are texts like advertisements, tourist brochures, product descriptions and instructions, manuals."


The translation of metaphor

The Translation of Metaphor

The following terminology for discussing metaphors:

  • Image

  • Object

  • Sense

  • Metaphor

  • Symbol


References

References

Newmark,Petter. A Textbook of Translation.New York: Prentice-Hall International. 1988.

Nida,Eugene A and Taber. The Theory and Practice of translation.Leiden:E.J.Brill.1969


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