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Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy:. A Partial Map of a Small Piece of the Territory for Pastoral Counselors and Their Colleagues. Agenda. Introduction, results, q uestions (45) Group c onversation (5-7 people, 20 min) Responses f rom groups (20). Methodology Explained. Rob Gonsalves

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Spiritually integrated psychotherapy

Spiritually Integrated Psychotherapy:

A Partial Map of a Small Piece of the Territory for Pastoral Counselors and Their Colleagues


Agenda
Agenda

  • Introduction, results, questions (45)

  • Group conversation (5-7 people, 20 min)

  • Responses from groups (20)


Methodology Explained

Rob Gonsalves

“Unfinished Puzzle”


Grounded theory
Grounded Theory

  • Qualitative research

  • Extension of ethnography (Strauss, Corbin, Charmaz)

  • Constant-comparative method

  • Construction of intermediate theory grounded in data (vs. testing a theory with data)


Procedures i
Procedures I

  • Proposal & MAP Grant in Collaboration with TSCTF

  • Identifying general boundaries

    • Search of academic institutions with SI in description

    • Search of counseling agencies with SI in description

    • Search of counselors’ websites with SI in description

    • Defining “Pastoral Counselors and those who work with them”

  • Sample

    • Maximum diversity frame (note limitations)

    • Email blast to all AAPC members asking to ID self and someone in community not AAPC who practices SIP

    • Ed. Institutions selected from websites that met criteria

    • Counseling centers selected that met criteria

    • Individual practitioners from email blast & referred from email blast, center or ed. Institution (you really should talk to…)



Procedures ii
Procedures II

  • Interviews

    • Open questions; Recorded

    • Continuous coding using NVIVO; constant comparison in scheduling interviews

    • Note limitations…diversity, Canada

  • Interpretation of results (constant-comparison method)

    • Axial coding, building categories, using NVIVO

    • Model building using NVIVO

    • Now testing validity/truthfulness


Some results

Some Results

General Theoretical Framework

M C Escher

“Drawing Hands”


General theoretical frameworks for sip
General Theoretical Frameworks for SIP

Alternative Medicine

PC Traditional Prof.

Multicultural framework for SIP

Phenomenological-Existential

Humanistic

Sacramental Assumptions

Black Church Community

SIP & Spiritual Direction

Faith Based Practice

A Multiversal Construction

Implicit/organic understanding of spirituality


Pc traditional
PC Traditional

  • Part of Christian ordained ministry & training

  • Rooted in religious community & hospitality

  • Strong theological training

  • CPE & Psychodynamic/conflict theories

  • Strong sense of counseling as sacred

  • Christian heritage (but not Christian Counseling)

  • Connects people to God

  • Not spiritual director, but open to big questions

  • SIP a new way to market PC


Faith based framework
Faith-Based Framework

  • Religious people want religious counseling

  • God incarnated in therapist for salvation of others

  • Strong theological training

  • Salvation is health

  • Kerygma perspective

  • Spirit of God talks

    • What does God want for this person

    • Seeking God in each session

  • Christ is active presence in therapy

  • Therapy grounded in human fallenness


Humanistic framework
Humanistic Framework

  • Spirituality & therapy = self-discovery

  • Absolute client centered approach

  • Therapy helps client generate own theology

  • Therapy expresses grace in human relationships

  • Human connection between therapist & client is central


Phenomenological framework
Phenomenological Framework

  • Focus on mystical presence

  • Therapy empowers transcendence

  • Existential therapy—mindfulness, meditation

  • Sacred is revealed in therapeutic vulnerability

  • Self-transcendence is central


Multicultural framework
Multicultural Framework

  • Spirituality is one of many multicultural factors

  • Working with spirituality IS multicultural counseling; one competency among others

  • Deals with differences

  • Attends to faith or faiths of “others”

  • Requires competency in multicultural counseling

    • Utilizes microskills

  • Respectful of and conversant with various spiritual traditions


Spiritual director sip framework
Spiritual Director & SIP Framework

  • Therapy begins in spiritual direction

  • Spiritual direction as certified discipline used throughout process of therapy

  • Focus on preventive care


Black church community
Black Church Community

  • SIP in the action of preaching in Black Church

  • SIP in the action of the community in Black Church

  • SIP in the action of pastoral counselors serving, often without license in Black Church

  • Black Church as therapeutic experience


Sacramental mediating variable
“Sacramental”-- Mediating Variable*

  • God is present in sessions

    • Christ’s active presence

    • Connects people to God

    • God-focused incarnation

    • God’s desire for people central

  • TX Sacred safe space

    • Casts goodness

    • Rigorous self-exploration

    • People reveal selves

    • For the spirit to grow

  • TX is process of surrender to Holy/God/Deity

    • Seeking God in each session

  • Priestly dimension of TX

    • Ministerial identity

    • TX mediates forgiveness

    • Grace made real in TX relationship

    • Grace linked to positive psychology

    • Counseling as sacrament

    • TX empties self for client

  • TX creates conditions for Holy Spirit activity

    • Spirit is motivating energy

    • Follows the spirit’s lead

    • The “glue” in personality & TX

*Mediating in the sense that it creates important connection between categories


Practices

Practices…..

Practices…


Client-Centered never therapist

Therapist initiates

Attend Carefully to Belief System

Loving the Client

Use-refer religious community

Who initiates?

General Therapy-orienting Practices

Create place of safety

Everything in therapy is spiritual

Trust Therapist’s instincts & intuition

Use of religious symbols

Transcends Boundaries of Traditional TX


Teach-use Xn Spiritual Practices

Formal Methods-Alternative Med

Assessment

Assessment

Black Church Preaching-Communal Experience

Uses Spiritual-Religious Symbols

Therapist Language

Specific Practices in Therapy

Models Therapist’s own Spiritual Practices

Music as Spiritual Mediator

Proactively Raise Spiritual Questions

Prayer

Teaches Spiritual Practices

Scripture


Therapist use of self
Therapist Use of Self

Guided by Psychological Theory

Therapy anchored in TX own Spiritual and religious life

Use of Self

Spirituality is the core connection between client & TX

Priestly Presence/Action

Culturally Aware & Competent--Bilingual


Questions for groups 20 min
Questions for Groups (20 min.)

  • How does this description/model fit your experience?

  • Whose voices are we missing?

  • What would you want the research team to know from your group’s discussion?

  • What questions did we forget to ask?



Implications for practice especially with strategic plan s mandate in mind
Implications for PracticeEspecially with Strategic Plan’s Mandate in Mind

  • Multiversal/polydoxy—not one model/not one truth

  • Plurality of models requires contextual definition by clinicians

    • Claiming-defining location and meanings

    • Similar to identifying models of therapy used

    • Transparency for self, clients, supervisees and other clinicians

  • Plurality of models requires consideration and research

    • Clarity—better description and definition of approaches/models

    • Contextualization—what model is appropriate for whom and in what context?

    • Contextualization—multicultural factors and religious plurality

    • Contextualization—models, intended outcomes and populations

    • How to communicate model/location

    • Generous listening

  • Plurality of models points to care in PC training and collaboration

    • Plurality and defining terms

    • Clarifying procedures, practices and outcomes

    • Clarifying and contexualizing therapist use of self and resources

    • Generosity

    • Communicating model/location



Assessment
Assessment

  • No specific assessment or reference to assessment (30%)

  • Religious-Spiritual questions on intake form (25%)

  • Therapist intuition (17%)

  • Overtly asks clients in first session (13%)

  • Attend carefully in session (11%)

  • Fitchett’ assessment model (2%)

  • Pargament’s assessment sometimes (2%)

  • Center has them, don’t use them…


Teach use christian spirituality
Teach-Use Christian Spirituality

  • Christian prayer (29%)

  • Scripture reading (10%)

    • Use for in-session reflection

    • Reciting scripture as homework

    • Useful examples from Christian tradition

    • Meditation

  • Devotional practices (2%)

  • Fasting (2%)

  • Laying on hands (2%)

  • Meditation on Christian principles (2%)

  • Practices of Ignatius (2%)


Formal practices alternative medicine teaching and using
Formal Practices-Alternative Medicine:Teaching and Using:

  • Acupuncture

  • Biofeedback

  • Body work-Yoga &Tai Chi

  • Brainspotting

  • Breathing techniques

  • Cranial-sacral Therapy

  • Emotional Freedom Therapy

  • Energy medicine

  • Guided Imagery

  • Healing touch

  • Heart Math

  • Ignatius practices

  • Meditation

  • Mindfulness

  • Reiki

  • Rejects medical model

  • Relaxation

  • Spiritual Direction

  • Wellness & exercise


Prayer 57 references to prayer by 23 respondents
Prayer57 references to prayer by 23 respondents*

  • Christian prayer as practice (6)

  • Always prays for clients & therapy (8)

  • Tells every client that she/he prays for them (3)

  • Never prays in or for therapy (5)

  • Encourages Centering Prayer (2)

  • Asks clients if they want to pray (2)

  • Prays with clients in session (4)

  • Prayer used as alternative medicine (2)

  • Ethical concerns about covert prayer (1)

*Numbers in parenthesis are higher than 23 due to

Some respondents falling in more than 1 category


Priestly presence action
Priestly Presence/Action

  • Use of self as ordained minister

    • Interpreting scripture, tradition, etc.

    • Sacraments, etc.

  • Called to do what God did—incarnate presence with others

  • Mediator of God’s grace through therapy

  • Counselor is a symbol of God’s grace

  • Counseling itself is sacramental presence/action


Therapy an expression of therapist s own religious spiritual life
Therapy an Expression of Therapist’s Own Religious/Spiritual Life

  • Genuineness about spiritual life

  • Personal theology and beliefs guide therapy

  • Therapist brackets personal beliefs and theology

  • Therapists trusts own instincts and intuitions

  • Therapists own spirituality is at the center of therapy encounters

  • Uses own spiritual practices—teaches, models


Sample Characteristics Religious/Spiritual Life


Procedures
Procedures Religious/Spiritual Life

  • Proposal & MAP Grant in Collaboration with TSCTF

  • Identifying general boundaries

    • Search of academic institutions with SI in description

    • Search of counseling agencies with SI in description

    • Search of counselors’ websites with SI in description

    • Defining “Pastoral Counselors and those who work with them”

  • Sample

    • Maximum diversity frame (note limitations)

    • Email blast to all AAPC members asking to ID self and someone in community not AAPC who practices SIP

    • Ed. Institutions selected from websites that met criteria

    • Counseling centers selected that met criteria

    • Individual practitioners from email blast & referred from email blast, center or ed. Institution (you really should talk to…)

  • Interviews

    • Open questions; Recorded

    • Continuous coding using NVIVO; constant comparison in scheduling interviews

    • Note limitations…diversity, Canada

  • Interpretation of results (constant-comparison method)

    • Axial coding, building categories, using NVIVO

    • Model building using NVIVO

    • Now testing validity/truthfulness


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