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Class no. 26 – Summary and Review. Document no. 19. 1740 18 Septembris ex Judaismo convertus pravi[tat]e instructus et de errore convictus baptizatus est Fridericus Amans filius legitimus Leonis et Sara Judaorum coniugum in Z ü nders- bach diocesis Fuldendis oriundus annorum i7. Patrinus

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Class no. 26 – Summary and Review

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Class no 26 summary and review

Class no. 26 – Summary and Review


Class no 26 summary and review

Document no. 19

1740 18 Septembris ex Judaismo convertus pravi[tat]e instructus et

de errore convictus baptizatus est Fridericus Amans

filius legitimus Leonis et Sara Judaorum coniugum in Zünders-

bach diocesis Fuldendis oriundus annorum i7. Patrinus

fuit perquam gratiosus illustrissimus ac excellentissimus

Dominus Fridericus de Bastheim Altissimi principis nostri

consiliarius intimus Mareschalbus et Archi satrapa in Brüchenau etc etc


Class no 26 summary and review

Course mission statement:

Course purpose: Students will learn to read, interpret and evaluate Latin language documents from the 15th -20th centuries


Class no 26 summary and review

Major goals:

  • Become familiar with Latin grammar and vocabulary

  • Learn translation and transcription methodologies

  • Introduce Latin paleography and shorthand

  • Analyze various Latin document types

    • - metrical books, court records, etc.

  • Study the Julian and Gregorian calendars


  • Class no 26 summary and review

    Latin grammar:

    • The parts of speech in Latin are the same as in English

      • nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections

      • Latin, however, has no article

    • Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs are capable of inflection

      • for nouns, adjectives, pronouns this is called declension

      • for verbs this is called conjugation


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Nouns

    • Latin nouns are the names of person, place, thing or quality

    • Three genders

    • masculine, feminine, and neuter

    • The gender of words can be natural or grammatical

    • Most Latin nouns determine gender by Nom. Sing. ending


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Number

    • Latin has two numbers, the singular and the plural

      • Singular denotes one object, the plural more than one

    Case

    • There are six cases in Latin

    • Nominative, case of subjectAccusative, case of direct object

    • Genitive, objective with ofVocative, case of address

    • Dative, objective with to or forAblative, objective with by, from, in, with


    Class no 26 summary and review

    The Latin Declensions

    • There are five declensions in Latin

    • Each declension is distinguished by

      • the final letter of the stem

      • the termination of the genitive singular


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Declension summary table

    DeclensionFinal letter of stemGen. Termination

    Firsta-ae

    Secondo-i

    Thirdi-is

    Some consonant

    Fourthu-us

    Fifthe-ei


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Adjectives

    • Adjectives denote quality. They are declined like nouns and fall into two classes

      • Adjectives of the 1st and 2nd declensions

      • Adjectives of the 3rd declensions

    First and Second Declension Adjectives


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Third Declension Adjectives

    Three terminations

    Two terminations

    One termination


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Numerals

    • In Latin are of three types

      • Cardinalsunus, duo

      • Ordinalsprimus, secundus

      • Distributivessinguli, bini

    Numerals in Latin are declined


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Pronouns

    Latin has eight classes of pronouns

    I. PersonalV. Intensive

    II. ReflexiveVI. Relative

    III. PossessiveVII. Interrogative

    IV. DemonstrativeVIII. Indefinite

    personal, possessive, demonstrative and interrogative


    Class no 26 summary and review

    1st2nd3rd1st2nd3rd

    egotuis, ea, idnosvos----

    meituinostrumvestrum

    mihitibinobisvos

    metenosvos

    ----tu----vos

    metenobisvobis

    Personal

    Possessive

    my, thy, his, her, its our, your, their

    Latin possessive pronouns are treated as adjectives of the 1st and 2nd declension

    meus, -a, -um

    noster, nostra, nostrum

    tuus, -a, um

    vester, vestra, vestrum

    suus, -a, -um

    Pater suos liberos amat


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Demonstrative Pronouns


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Verbs

    • The inflection of verbs is called conjugation

    • Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number and Person

      • In Latin

        • Two voices

          • Active and Passive

        • Five Moods

          • Indicative, subjunctive, imperative, infinitive and participle

        • Six Tenses

    • PresentPerfect

    • ImperfectPluperfect

    • FutureFuture perfect


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Personal Endings of the Verb

    Active

    Passive

    • -o; -m; -i (perf. indic.)-r

    • -s; -sti (perf. indic.); -to (imp.)-ris, -re; -re, -tor (imp.)

    • -t; -to (imp.)-tur; tor (imp.)

    Sing.

    • –mus-mur

    • -tis; -stis (pef. indic.); -te, -tote (imp.)-mini

    • -nt; -erunt (perf. indic.); -nto (imp.)-ntur; -ntor (imp.)

    Plural


    Class no 26 summary and review

    The Four Conjugations

    Infinitive termination

    Distinguishing vowel


    Class no 26 summary and review

    The Verb “to be” (memorize)


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Latin verb terminations


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Conjugation example: active


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Conjugation example: passive


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Other Verb Forms

    • Verbs in -io of the 3rd conjugation are inflected with the endings of the 4th conjugation (pres. indic.)

    • Deponent Verbs have the mostly passive forms, but active meaning

    • patior, pati, passus sum

    • Periphrastic conjugation

      • active uses the Future Active Participle with sum

        amaturus sum, I am about to love

      • passive uses the gerundive with sum

    • amandus sum, I am to be loved

    • Irregular, Defective and Impersonal Verbs


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Adverbs

    • Most adverbs are in origin case-forms which have become stereotyped by usage

    • quo - whither qua - where hac - by this way aliquo - to some place

    Prepositions

    • Prepositions govern specific cases [must be memorized as a vocabulary item]

      • Prep. with the Accusative: ad, circa. contra, post, super, trans

      • Prep. with the Ablative: de, ex, pro, sine

    • The prep. in and sub govern both the Accusative and Ablative

    • in urbem, into the cityin urbe, in the city

    Interjections

    In Latin, interjections are particles expressing emotion: surprise, joy, sorrow, calling


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Vocabulary

    baptizatus

    • Baptizatus

    • Sepultus

    • Filius

    • Filia

    • Pater

    • Mater

    • Patrinus, levans

    • Est

    • Die

    • Mensis

    • Anno Domini

    • Baptized

    • Buried

    • Son

    • Daughter

    • Father

    • Mother

    • Godfather

    • Is or was

    • On the day

    • In the month

    • In the year of the Lord

    mater

    mensis


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Translation and transcription:

    • How to write

    • Making hands

    • Letter composition

    • Translation procedures

    • Parsing


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Hand Chart:

    a

    N,n____ ____ ____ ____

    O,o____ ____ ____ ____

    P,p____ ____ ____ ____

    Q,q____ ____ ____ ____

    R,r____ ____ ____ ____

    S,s____ ____ ____ ____

    T,t____ ____ ____ ____

    U,u____ ____ ____ ____

    V,v____ ____ ____ ____

    W,w____ ____ ____ ____

    X,x____ ____ ____ ____

    Y,y____ ____ ____ ____

    Z,z____ ____ ____ ____

    A,a____ ____ ____ ____

    B,b____ ____ ____ ____

    C,c____ ____ ____ ____

    D,d____ ____ ____ ____

    E,e____ ____ ____ ____

    F,f____ ____ ____ ____

    G,g____ ____ ____ ____

    H,h____ ____ ____ ____

    I,i____ ____ ____ ____

    J,j____ ____ ____ ____

    K,k____ ____ ____ ____

    L,l____ ____ ____ ____

    M,m____ ____ ____ ____

    a___

    b___

    c___

    d___

    e___

    f___

    g___

    h___

    i___

    b

    c

    d

    e

    f

    g

    h

    i


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Letter composition:

    Square Anglo-Saxon Miniscule

    Caroline Miniscule

    Proto-Gothic Simi-Cursive

    Gothic Textura


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Paleographical terms

    ascender

    minim

    headstroke

    bow

    F

    m

    p

    h

    f

    hasta

    head line

    descender

    base line

    miniscule

    a lower case letter

    a script using ascenders / descenders

    majuscule

    a capital or upper case letter

    a script where all letters are the same size


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Translation tips:

    Decide the documents purpose from:

    title page or target

    catalog entry

    heading of the document

    scanning for purpose words

    testamentum, obitus est, baptizatus est, conjugeverunt, liber confirmatorum


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Translation tips: cont.

    Identify the verb

    Identify the subject

    Identify the direct object

    Identify the indirect object

    Identify prepositional phrases and adverbs

    Translate into English in the following order:

    Subject – Verb – Direct Object – Indirect Object – Prep. Phrase


    Class no 26 summary and review

    LOOK AT EACH WORD IN EACH LINE

    • LOOK FOR FAMILIAR WORDS

    • LOOK FOR FAMILIAR WORD STEMS, I.E. THE UNCHANGING PART OF A WORD THAT CARRIES ITS MEANING

    • WRITE DOWN EACH WORD IN ORDER

    • WRITE DOWN THE MOST COMMON MEANING OF THE WORD STEM

    • LOOK AT THE MEANINGS OF THE WORDS WITH THE SAME STEM


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Identify pronouns and adjectives

    Identify the Verbs

    Verbs tell us what happened, when it happened, and how many were involved

    Verbs are always the minority—Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives and conjunctions will always outnumber them

    Like Nouns, Pronouns and Adjectives, endings are added to the Verb stem

    You will need a good pocket dictionary with regular, irregular and deponent verb tables


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Identify the Nouns

    What is the grammar?

    Remember:

    Nouns are divided into five declensions base on their spelling and endings.

    Each declension has five forms reflecting the noun’s use in the sentence.

    Each form has an ending added to the work stem to indicate the nouns’s use in the sentence and its number (singular or plural)


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Example Translation

    Die 22da Julij nata est infans ex Andrea Herman, et Eva Margaretha Conjugibus, baptizata die Sequenti, cui impositum nomen Maria Barbara levans fuit Maria Barbara Jacobi Schwind civis hujatis uxor. Ita testor Andreas Haas

    On the 22nd day of July a child was born from the married couple Andreas Herman and Eva Margaretha, [the child] was baptized the following day, to whom was placed the name Maria Barbara. The godmother was Maria Barbara wife of Jacob Schwind, a citizen of this place. And so I testify Andreas Haas.


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Latin abbreviations:

    • Latin shorthand

    • Appears to be no rhyme or reason

    • Basic rules


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Basic classes of abbreviation

    • Truncation

    • Contraction

    • Abbrev. marks significant in themselves

    • Abbrev. marks significant in context

    • Superscript signs

    • Convention signs

    • Numerals


    Class no 26 summary and review

    General signs indicate the word has been abbreviated

    Truncation signs indicate some letters are missing at the end of the word


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Abbreviation by Contraction

    occurs when one or more of the middle letters are missing

    contraction can be pure, i.e. when the first and last letters of the word are preserved; or mixed, when some of the middle letters are also preserved

    dsDeus

    babeata

    prpater

    mrmater

    dnodomino

    diadimidia

    epoepiscopo

    oaomnia


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Marks Significant in Themselves

    indicate which elements are missing, no matter what letter the symbol is place above or joined with


    Class no 26 summary and review

    I.

    Abbreviations significant in context


    Class no 26 summary and review

    II.

    Marks resembling . : ; and 3 occur almost always at the end of and are written between the text and head lines

    When they follow b they stand for –us or –et

    b. b: b; b3

    When they follow q- they stand for –ue. Alone the 3 and the : can stand for -que

    quib;hab3usq;

    qa93lic:omnib.


    Class no 26 summary and review

    II. (cont.)

    W/ Өy flw s—Өy std 4 —is

    remiss;cas;ms;


    Class no 26 summary and review

    III.

    Θ 3rd claŝ . a; obliq3 le of. hook3 at 2th ends, cut: ars any ltr o/ Θ a/b

    See Capelli, p. 23-29 for more examples


    Class no 26 summary and review

    IV.

    The fourth class is similar to the Arabic numeral 2 or the letter z

    After q- its meaning is –uia, quia

    Alone, the signs equal et

    After u- or a-, they show a missing -m

    After s-, they stand for –et or –ed: sz = sed


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Roman Numerals

    Basic values

    i = 1v = 5x = 10l = 50c = 100 d = 500 m = 1000

    Combinations

    iv = 4vi = 6xxii = 22 xlvii = 47 dcxlviii = 648 mcccliv = 1354 mmiv = 2004


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Document types

    Structure of Parish Registers (Birth, Baptismal)

    • Date

    • Names of the parent(s)

      • Often includes mother’s maiden name

    • Name of the child

    • Names of the godparents

    • Tip: Memorize pattern and common Latin phrases


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Document types

    Structure of Parish Registers (Marriage)

    Date

    Name and status of groom, parents’ names and status

    Name and status of bride, parents’ names and status

    Places of origin

    Witnesses

    Attestation


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Document types

    Structure of Parish Registers (Death)

    Date of death

    Name of deceased

    Date of birth and status

    Names of parents

    Cause of death

    Date and place of internment

    Attestation


    Class no 26 summary and review

    A heading, “In the name of God, amen”

    A date expressed in relation to a saint’s day and a regnal year or year of grace

    in festo Sancte Anne anno domini millesimo cccclvjmo

    “in the feast of Saint Anne, 1456 A.D.”

    Leaving of the testator’s soul to God

    Naming of the executors of the will

    Citing of witnesses to the will

    Sealing the will

    The date, if not already given

    Document types

    Structure of Manorial Wills


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Dating the document

    Most Documents Use the Gregorian Date: Day, Month Year (1582-Calendar Reform)

    Many Events Will Be Recorded Using the Ecclesiastical Calendar: Fixed and Moveable Feast Days

    A Few Recorders Used the Roman Calendar (All Dates Are Calculated from Kalends, Nones, Ides)


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Roman Calendar

    nonas Martii, millesimi octingentesimi sexagesimi noni

    xi kalendas Maii

    Church Calendar

    1641 Dn. 10. p.Tr.

    10 Sundays after Trinity, which is 1 Sunday after Pentecost, which is 7 Sundays after Easter, which in the Julian calendar of 1641 was 25 April

    Equals 10 Sundays + 1 Sunday + 7 Sundays after 25 April, or

    29 August, 1641


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Calendar -- continued

    Sunday

    Abbreviations:

    Dom. Sunday

    Donca.Sunday

    eiusd.of the same month

    eod.on the same [date]

    fafeast day, weekday

    fa2aMonday

    pd.the day before

    Monday, fa2a

    Tuesday, fa3a

    Wednesday, fa4a

    Thursday, fa5a

    Friday, fa6a

    Saturday, fa7a


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Aries

    Libra

    Taurus

    Scorpiio

    Gemini

    Sagittarius

    Cancer

    Capricorn

    Aquarius

    Leo

    Pisces

    Virgo


    Class no 26 summary and review

    Student Projects

    • Mr Melendez1:40 pm-2:00 pm

    • Ms Heuer2:05 pm-2:25 pm

    • Ms Hald2:30 pm-2:50 pm


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