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Body Structure. Medical Terminology Chapter 5. Student Objectives. Define the levels of organization in the human body. Describe the disease process by defining terms associated with pathology. Identify four body planes. Relate organs to each body cavity. Student Objectives.

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Body structure

Body Structure

Medical Terminology

Chapter 5


Student objectives
Student Objectives

  • Define the levels of organization in the human body.

  • Describe the disease process by defining terms associated with pathology.

  • Identify four body planes.

  • Relate organs to each body cavity.


Student objectives1
Student Objectives

  • Describe the four quadrants

  • Describe radiology, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography.

  • Apply directional terms.

  • Identify combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes related to body structure.


Student objectives2
Student Objectives

  • Identify diagnostic, symptomatic, and therapeutic terms related to body structure.

  • Identify diagnostic procedures related to body structure.


Student objectives3
Student Objectives

  • Identify surgical and therapeutic procedures related to body structure.

  • Define the abbreviations related to body structure.


Levels of organization
Levels of Organization

  • Cells, Cytology

  • Tissues, Histology

    • epithelial

    • connective

    • muscle

    • nervous

  • Organs

  • Systems

  • Organism


Disease process
Disease Process

  • Disease, morbid

  • signs, objective

  • symptoms, subjective

  • homeostasis

  • pathology

  • etilogy

  • diagnosis, prognosis

  • idiopathic


Body planes
Body Planes

  • Imaginary horizontal and vertical lines

  • Easier to describe location of organ or problem






Ventral cavity
Ventral Cavity

  • contains body organs that maintain homeostasis

  • thoracic cavity

  • abdominal cavity

  • pelvic cavity


Dorsal
Dorsal

  • cranial cavity

  • spinal cavity


Divisions of the abdomen
Divisions of the Abdomen

  • right upper quadrant RRQ

  • left upper quadrant LUQ

  • right lower quadrant RLQ

  • left lower quadrant LLQ


Diagnostic imaging
Diagnostic Imaging

  • Radiography (x-ray)

  • Computed Tomography (CT scan)

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • Ultrasonography


The spine
The Spine

  • Cervical (neck)

  • Thoracic (chest)

  • Lumbar (loin)

  • Sacral (lower back)

  • Coccyx (tailbone)





Lateral and medial

Lateral

Bilateral

Medial

toward the side or away from the midline

having two sides or both sides

middle or towards the midline

Lateral and Medial







Combining forms denoting
Combining Forms Denoting...

  • Cellular Structure

  • Anatomical Directions

  • Regions of the Body

  • Colors

  • Body Structure


Suffixes review
Suffixes - Review

  • -genesis

  • -gnosis

  • -gram

  • -graph

  • -graphy

  • -pathy


Prefixes review
Prefixes - Review

  • Ab-

  • ad-

  • all-

  • infra-

  • peri-

  • super-

  • trans-

  • ultra-


Diagnostic symptomatic and therapeutic terms
Diagnostic, Symptomatic and Therapeutic Terms

  • Ablation

  • adhesion

  • dehiscence

  • nuclear medicine

  • polyp

  • radiopharmaceutical

  • sepsis

  • suppurative


Diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic Procedures

  • Digital radiography

  • fluoroscopy

  • magnetic resonance angiography

  • magnetic resonance imaging

  • positron emission tomography

  • sonography

  • stereoradiography


Surgical therapeutic procedures
Surgical,Therapeutic Procedures

  • Anastomosis

  • biopsy

  • cauterize

  • curettage

  • frozen section

  • incision and drainage

  • laser surgery

  • ligation

  • resection

  • radical dissection


Abbreviations
Abbreviations

  • AP

  • CNS

  • CT scan, CAT scan

  • CV

  • Dx

  • GI

  • GU


Abbreviations1
Abbreviations

  • GU

  • I & D

  • LAT

  • LLQ, LUQ, RLQ, RUQ

  • MRI

  • MS

  • PA

  • sono

  • U/L



Peritoneum
Peritoneum

  • parietal

  • visceral

  • mesentery

  • retroperitoneal

  • peritonitis


Genetic disorder hereditary disorder

Genetic Disorder / Hereditary Disorder

Any disease or condition caused by defective genes.

cystic fibrosis

Down syndrome (trisomy 21)

hemophilia

muscular dystrophy


Congenital disorder

Congenital disorder

Is present at birth or existing at the time of birth. Gene abnormalities account for about 5 percent of congenital heart disease.

fetal alcohol syndrome

congenital anomaly


Histology
Histology

  • Epithelial

    • epithelium - external surfaces - epi

    • endothelium - internal surfaces - endo

  • Connective

    • bones and cartilage

    • adipose

  • Nervous


Plasia
- plasia

  • aplasia-lack of development of organ/tissue

  • hypoplasia-incomplete development

  • hyperplasia-abnormal increase in number of normal cells in normal tissue arrangement

  • dysplasia-abnormal development or growth

  • anaplasia - change in structure of cells and in their orientation to each other--characteristic of malignancy


Neoplasm tumor
Neoplasm (tumor)

Any abnormal new growth of tissue in which the multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive.

ne/o - means new or strange

  • benign - usually not recurring, not malignant

  • malignant - tending to spread, life-threatening


Glands
Glands

  • Exocrine

  • Endocrine

    endo -inside

    crine - to secrete

    exo - out of


Pathology and procedures
Pathology and Procedures

  • adenosis

  • adenitis

  • adenomalacia

  • adenosclerosis

  • adenoma

  • adenectomy


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