Buddhism
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Do Now Grab an Old Textbook … open to – and read – page 39 “Buddhism” Answer the questions below Who was Buddha? Where did Buddhism begin ?. Buddhism. Born Siddhartha Gautama in 563 BC In northern India (today Nepal). Buddha. Life is full of suffering that we must escape

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Buddhism

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Buddhism

Do Now

Grab an Old Textbook… open to – and read – page 39 “Buddhism” Answer the questions below

Who was Buddha? Where did Buddhism begin?

Buddhism


Buddha

Born Siddhartha Gautama in 563 BC

In northern India (today Nepal)

Buddha


His teachings

Life is full of suffering that we must escape

Desires are suffering

Meditation can help one reach their goal, become enlightened and reach…

Nirvana – the ultimate reality

His teachings


How does one achieve enlightenment

Monks, these two extremes ought not to be encouraged by the recluse. What two? Sensual indulgence (overeating), which is low, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, (corrupt), and conducive (helpful) to harm; and self-mortification (fasting), which is painful, ignoble, and conducive to harm. The middle path, monks, avoiding the extremes, gives vision and knowledge and leads to calm, realization, enlightenment, and Nirvana. And what, monks, is that middle path? It is this Noble Eightfold Path, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

- The Buddha, speaking to his followers, c. 589 BC

How does one achieve enlightenment?


How to become enlightened

Know the 4 Noble Truths

Follow the Middle Path – or Eightfold Path

How to become enlightened?

  • Suffering part of human life

  • Suffering comes from desires for pleasure, material goods

  • Overcoming desires ends suffering

  • Desires can be overcome by following Eightfold Path

    • Dharma Wheel

    • Dharma – Buddhist laws


Middle path eightfold path

Middle Path – Eightfold Path

  • Series of Steps Leading to Enlightenment, Salvation

  • Right view, or accepting the Four Noble Truths

  • Right attitude, or striving for moderation in all things

  • Right speech, avoiding lies, boasts, and hurtful words

  • Right action, or treating others fairly

  • Right livelihood, avoiding jobs that could bring harm to others

  • Right effort, or constantly trying to improve oneself

  • Right mindfulness, or remaining aware of world around one

  • Right concentration, or ignoring temptation and discomfort while meditating


Buddhism1

Beginnings?

Basic Beliefs?

Laws?

Goal?

Buddhism


Buddhist temple at bodh gaya

Buddhist Temple at Bodh Gaya


Buddhism

Buddhism

Main Idea

Buddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddha’s teachings, developed in India and spread to other parts of Asia and the world.

  • Focus

  • How did the early life of the Buddha lead to the beginnings of Buddhism?

  • What are the major teachings of Buddhism?

  • What areas were affected by the spread of Buddhism?


Buddhism

Early Life

Buddha’s Enlightenment

  • Much of what is known about life of the Buddha from accounts in Buddhist literature

  • Siddhartha Gautama born approx. 563 BC

  • Prince of small kingdom in what is now Nepal

    • Led sheltered life

    • Unaware of hardship

    • Life changed when learned people got old, sick, died

  • Gautama resolved to find way to overcome age, sickness, keep people from suffering

  • Gave up possessions, left palace

  • Sought enlightenment, spiritual understanding for six years

  • Studied with gurus, monks but decided they could not teach way to enlightenment

The Life of the Buddha

In addition to Hinduism, another of the world’s major religions developed in ancient India. That religion was Buddhism.


Buddhism

Gautama was determined to find way to end human suffering

Sat under tree, no teachers, no companions, determined not to arise until he found way

Stories say he meditated all night

Resolve tested by violent storms, earthly temptations

At daybreak, had been transformed, found enlightenment, became the Buddha, Enlightened One

Temple built where he meditated, Bodh Gaya, one of Buddhism’s most sacred places

The Life of the Buddha


Buddhism

Explain

How did Siddhartha Gautama become the Buddha?

Answer(s):meditated under a tree, determined not to arise until he found solution to human suffering; was enlightened and transformed


Buddhism

Four Noble Truths

Buddhist Beliefs

  • Suffering part of human life

  • Suffering comes from desires for pleasure, material goods

  • Overcoming desires ends suffering

  • Desires can be overcome by following Eightfold Path

    • Dharma Wheel

    • Dharma – Buddhist laws

  • After enlightenment achieved, Buddha meditated at Bodh Gaya seven weeks

  • Set out to spread to others what he had learned

  • Lessons became basic teachings of Buddhism

  • Among ideas learned in meditation, central truths, called Four Noble Truths

The Teachings of Buddhism


Buddhism

  • Dalai Lama - Tibet


Buddhism

Eightfold Path

  • Series of Steps Leading to Enlightenment, Salvation

  • Right view, or accepting the reality of the Four Noble Truths

  • Right attitude, or striving for moderation in all things

  • Right speech, avoiding lies, boasts, and hurtful words

  • Right action, or treating others fairly

  • Right livelihood, avoiding jobs that could bring harm to others

  • Right effort, or constantly trying to improve oneself

  • Right mindfulness, or remaining aware of world around one

  • Right concentration, or ignoring temptation and discomfort while meditating


Buddhism

The Buddha taught that those who followed Eightfold Path could attain nirvana – the ultimate reality

State of perfect peace in which soul freed from suffering forever

Those not attaining nirvana reborn to live through cycle of suffering again

Basic teachings of Eightfold Path, Middle Way—living in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort, discomfort in search for nirvana

Nirvana

Samsara – cycle of reincarnation


Buddhism

Theravada

Mahayana

Tibetan

  • “Way of the Elders”

  • Oldest tradition

  • Best way to attain nirvana: be monk, nun, meditate

  • Find one path to enlightenment; very much an individual religion

  • Teaches people can help each other find enlightenment

  • Not necessary to be monk, nun

  • Bodhisattvas, enlightened people not yet passed to nirvana, help others

  • Shares many Mahayana teachings

  • Also believes special techniques can harness spiritual energy, lead to nirvana in single lifetime

Divisions of Buddhism

After the Buddha’s death, differing opinions arose concerning the correct teachings and practices of Buddhism. Eventually three main Buddhist traditions formed—Theravada, Mahayana, and Tibetan.


Buddhism

Summarize

What are the fundamental teachings of Buddhism?

Answer(s): suffering comes from selfish desires; overcoming desire ends suffering; follow Eightfold Path to overcome desire


Buddhism

Buddhism in India

Ashoka

  • Buddhist community in India grew throughout Buddha’s life

  • Followers spread teachings after Buddha’s death

  • Teachings not written down until first century BC; helped preserve, spread teachings throughout India

  • 200s BC, Buddhism reached peak in India during reign of emperor Ashoka

  • Ashoka became Buddhist, helped spread Buddhism into all parts of India

The Spread of Buddhism

Unlike Hinduism, which largely remained an Indian religion, Buddhism spread into other parts of the world. Today, more than 350 million people are Buddhists, most of them concentrated in Asia. Relatively few people in India are Buddhists today.

Ashoka also encouraged missionaries to carry the Buddha’s message to lands outside of India.


Buddhism

  • Buddhism Beyond India

  • Ashoka sent missionaries to Sri Lanka, large island off India’s southern coast, and north to lands along Himalayas, east into lands of Southeast Asia

  • Buddhism took firm hold in kingdoms that eventually became Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, islands of Indonesia

  • Traders

  • Trade also helped spread Buddhism beyond India

  • 200s BC, merchants traveling routes from India to Central Asia introduced Buddhist teachings

  • Traders from Central, Southeast Asia took Buddhist teachings into China, slowly spreading, blending with native Chinese philosophies


Buddhism

Change, Development

Korea and Japan

  • As Buddhism encountered other religious traditions outside India, it changed, developed

  • Blending caused smaller traditions within Theravada, Mahayana

  • Zen, branch of Mahayana, emphasized self-discipline, meditation

  • Today Buddhism very diverse

  • From China, Buddhism eventually diffused into Korea, Japan

  • AD 300s, first introduced to Korea

  • Korean travelers took religion to Japan 200 years later

  • By this time, Buddhism had become leading religion in East, Southeast Asia

Leading Asian Religion


Buddhism

Sequence

How did Buddhism spread through Asia?

Answer(s): through missionary work and trade


Buddhist monks

Buddhist Monks…


Thanks for stopping

Thanks for stopping…

Budai ~ Buddhist Chinese monk circa 10th c. CE


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