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Social Science Experiment. Jan-Willem Bullee. Background. Effectiveness of authority on compliance We can get some of the answers from Literature (Meta-analysis) Attacker stories/interviews But the answers are inconclusive Different context Hard to measure human nature

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social science experiment
Social Science Experiment
  • Jan-Willem Bullee
background
Background
  • Effectiveness of authority on compliance
  • We can get some of the answers from
    • Literature (Meta-analysis)
    • Attacker stories/interviews
  • But the answers are inconclusive
    • Different context
    • Hard to measure human nature
    • Difficult to standardize behaviour.

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Cyber-crime Science

principles of persuasion
Principles of Persuasion
  • Authority
    • More likely to listen to an police officer
  • Conformity
    • Peer pressure
  • Commitment
    • Say yes to something small first
  • Reciprocity
    • Return the favour
  • Liking
    • People like you and me
  • Scarcity
    • Wanting the ungettable

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literature on authority

[Mil63] S. Milgram. Behavioral study of obedience. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 371–378.

Literature on Authority
  • Classical Milgram Shock Experiment
    • 66% full compliance

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Cyber-crime Science

introduction key experiment
Introduction Key Experiment
  • Get something from an employee
  • Equal to password or PIN
  • Intervention
  • Impersonate

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Cyber-crime Science

experimental setup
Experimental Setup
  • Design
  • Intervention
    • Written memo
    • Key-chain
    • Poster

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Cyber-crime Science

hypotheses
Hypotheses
  • H0: Intervention and Control comply equally
  • H0: Authority and Control comply equally
  • H0: Effect of Authority on compliance

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Cyber-crime Science

results
Results
  • 351 rooms targeted
    • N=118 (33,6%) populated
  • Demographics Targets
    • Female: 24 (20%) Male: 94 (80%)
    • Mage = 34, range (23-63) years
  • Overall compliance distribution
    • 52.5%/47.5%

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Cyber-crime Science

results1
Results

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results2
Results
  • Intervention distribution
    • 60%/40%
  • H0: Intervention and Control comply equally
    • χ²-test
    • Hypothesis rejected

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Cyber-crime Science

results3
Results
  • Authority distribution
    • ≈50/50
  • H0: Authority and Control comply equally
    • χ²-test
    • Hypothesis accepted

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results4
Results
  • Effect of authority
    • Logistic Regression
    • Employees that did not get the intervention are 2.84 times morelikely to give their key away

Give Key

Intervention

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results5
Results
  • Effect of authority
    • Logistic Regression
    • Employees that did not get the intervention are 2.84 times morelikely to give their key away
    • Authority: No effect

Give Key

Intervention

Authority

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Cyber-crime Science

results6
Results
  • Comments:
    • “Great test!” “Cool Experiment” “Interesting study”
    • “I had doubts” “Having an keychain is important”
    • “Suspicious looking box”
    • “Guy in suit looked LESS trustworthy”
    • “Asked for my ID”
    • “Trusted me since I looked friendly”
    • “I feel stupid”
    • “I didn’t wanted to give the key, but did it anyway”

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Cyber-crime Science

take home message
Take Home Message
  • Children, animals, people never react the way you want.
  • Limited availability in July and August
  • You are not important for others
  • …unless you want to break the system
  • 1/3 of employees works on a Wednesday in September
  • 2.84 times higher odds to get key if no intervention

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Cyber-crime Science

charging mobile phone
Charging Mobile Phone

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charging mobile phone1
Charging Mobile Phone
  • What are the security considerations of the users of a public mobile phone charger?
    • What is the use rate of the device (per number of people at that location per hour),
    • Why do people use (or not) the system?
    • How do the safety perceptions of the current users differ between the former users and the non-users.
  • You are the researchers!

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crime prevention
Crime Prevention

[Coz05] Cozens, P. M., Saville, G., & Hillier, D. (2005). Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography. Property management, 23(5), 328-356.

  • CPTED Framework (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design)
  • Activity Support
    • Eyes on the street
    • Unfortunately: also provides opportunity
    • Overall crimes are reduced by increasing activity

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Cyber-crime Science

hypotheses1
Hypotheses
  • H0: Cabinets in busy and quite areas are equally used.
  • H0: Cabinets with surveillance (e.g. service desk) and with no surveillance are equally used.
  • H0: Cabinets in lunch hours (e.g. lunch) and lecture hours are equally used.

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Cyber-crime Science

our design
Our Design
  • Researchers: You (Student)
  • Target: Fellow Students and Employee
  • Goal: Observe
    • Observe and interview people
  • Interface: Face 2 Face
  • Count people and short questionnaire

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Cyber-crime Science

method our design
Method : Our design
  • 2 experimental conditions
    • Users of the system / non users of the system
  • 6 locations
    • Experimental: Bastille, Hal-B, Horst and Spiegel
    • Control: ITC (city center), Ravelijn

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Cyber-crime Science

method our procedure
Method : Our procedure
  • Subjects from the experimental building
    • Teams of 1 researcher
    • One minute count: the people that pass-by
    • Approach users of the system
  • Subjects from the control building
    • Teams of 2 researchers
    • Interview people walking in the area
  • More details on the course-site

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what to do
What to do
  • Before Tuesday 9 September
    • Register in the Doodle
  • On 10, 17 (and 24) September
    • 09:30 - 09:50 Briefing at ZI4047
    • Travel to location
    • 10:30 - 12:45 Experiment
    • 12:45 - 13:30 Break and travel
    • 13:30 - 15:45 Experiment part 2

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what to do1
What to do
  • We have permission to do this only at
    • UT: Bastille, Hal-B, Horst, Ravelijn, Spiegel and ITC
  • Enter your data in SPSS
    • Directly after the attack
    • Come to me ZI4047
  • Earn 0.5 (out of 10) bonus points

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Cyber-crime Science

ethical issues
Ethical issues
  • Informed consent not possible
  • Zero risk for the subjects
  • Approved by facility management
  • Consistent with data protection (PII form)
  • Approved by ethical committee, see http://www.utwente.nl/ewi/en/research/ethics_protocol/

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conclusion
Conclusion
  • Designing research involves:
    • Decide what data are needed
    • Decide how to collect the data
    • Use validated techniques where possible
    • Experimental Design, pilot, evaluate and improve
    • Training, data gathering

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Cyber-crime Science

further reading

[Cia09] R. B. Cialdini. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. Harper Collins, 2009. http://www.harpercollins.com/browseinside/index.aspx?isbn13=9780061241895

[Gre96a] T. Greening. Ask and ye shall receive: a study in \'social engineering\'. SIGSAC Rev., 14(2):8-14, Apr 1996. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/228292.228295

[Hof66] C. Hofling, E. Brotzman, S. Dalrymple, N. Graves, and C. Pierce. An experimental study in Nurse-Physician relationships. J. of Nervous & Mental Disease, 143(2):171-180, Aug 1966.

Further Reading

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