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STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE


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STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE. A, B, C’s. A = Affect (prejudice) B = Behavior (discrimination) C = Cognitions (stereotypes). Prejudice, Discrimination, & Stereotypes. Prejudice: Positive or negative feeling about a person based on attitude about the person’s social group membership

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STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE

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  • STEREOTYPES

  • & PREJUDICE


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A, B, C’s

  • A = Affect (prejudice)

  • B = Behavior (discrimination)

  • C = Cognitions (stereotypes)


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Prejudice, Discrimination, & Stereotypes

  • Prejudice: Positive or negative feeling about a person based on attitude about the person’s social group membership

  • Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a person or group in comparison to others who are not members of the same social group

  • Stereotypes: Attributes believed to describe a social group

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Group Differences

  • Groups differences exist:

    • College drop out rates

    • College GPA

    • SAT scores

    • GRE scores

    • ACT scores


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Stereotype Threat

  • Fear that one will be viewed or treated in way consistent with a negative stereotype, or fear that one will confirm the stereotype

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Stereotype Threat StudySteele & Aronson (1995)

Invalid Test

Valid Test

AA = W

AA < W

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Stereotype Threat StudySteele & Aronson (1995)

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Stereotypes

  • Attributes believed

  • to describe a group.


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Stereotypes

  • Personal stereotype: attributes an individual believes describes a group

  • Consensual stereotype: attributes many people believe describe a group


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Stereotype Formation

  • Categorization:

  • Classifying stimuli

  • into different groups


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A

B

Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

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Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

  • The labels caused participants to:

  • perceive the lines in group A as highly similar to to one another

  • 2. perceive lines in group B to be highly similar to one another

  • 3. perceive large differences between the line groups

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Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

Overestimate similarity within groups

  • (within category homogeneity)

    Exaggerate differences between groups

  • (accentuation of inter-category difference)

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Stereotype Formation

  • People naturally categorize others into groups

People perceive members of a group as more similar to one another than they really are and as more different from other groups than they really are

The ways that group members are perceived to be similar to one another and different from other groups becomes the content of the stereotype associated with their social group

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Outgroup Homogeneity Effect

  • People perceive out-group members as more similar than in-group members

  • Amount of contact

  • Intimacy of contact


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Stereotype Maintenance

  • Subtyping:

  • Disconfirming targets tagged as “exceptions to the rule”


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African

American

White

Stereotyping

  • Applying one’s stereotype to an individual

Ambiguous Behavior

(e.g., poking)

More mean

& threatening

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Function of Stereotypes

  • Cognitive Miser Perspective:

  • Stereotyping easier than

  • judging targets according

  • to personal attributes


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Time Pressure StudyKruglanski & Freund (1983)

Essay

Sephardic

Jew

Ashkenazi

Jew

Manipulation

Time Pressure

No Time Pressure

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B

C

D

D

Time Pressure StudyKruglanski & Freund (1983)

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

  • A false belief that leads to its own fulfillment:

  • Perceiver develops false belief about a target

  • Perceiver treats target in a manner consistent with false belief

  • Target responds to the treatment in such a way as to confirm the originally false belief

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Two Types of SFPs

  • Positive SFPs:

  • Perceiver overestimates target’s ability

  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that overly positive belief

  • Target responds by confirming the overly positive belief

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Two Types of SFPs

  • Negative SFPs:

  • Perceiver underestimates target’s ability

  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that overly negative belief

  • Target responds by confirming the overly negative belief

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Learned the

maze better

Dumb Rat - Smart Rat Study

Positive Belief

Negative Belief

Smart

Rat

Dumb

Rat

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Stereotypes

  • Self-fulfilling prophecies

  • can contribute to social problems


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Interview Study

  • Study 1

  • Do W treat AA and W different?

  • Participants interviewed confederate for a job

    Confederate: African American or White

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Interview Study

  • Results: Study 1

    Interview length: AA < W

    Distance: AA > W

    Eye contact: AA < W

    Speech dysfluencies: AA > W

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Interview Study

  • Study 2

  • Does differential treatment

  • influence behavior?

    Confederates interviewed participant for job

    Treated participant like AA or W were treated in Study 1

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Interview Study

Results: Study 2

Treated like

African

Americans

Treated like

Whites

Worse

Performance

Better

Performance

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Prejudice

  • Positive or negative feeling about person based on attitude about person’s group


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Causes of Prejudice

  • 1. Competition between groups

  • 2. Simple distinction between groups


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Realistic Group Conflict Theory

  • Prejudice stems from

  • competition between groups

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Summer Camp Studies

Purpose:

Competition

Prejudice


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Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 1: In-group Identity

  • Build cohesion among in-group


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Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 2: Intergroup Conflict

  • Create competitive environment


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Robber’s Cave Study

  • Each boy rated own group and other group

  • brave

  • tough

  • friendly

  • sneaky

  • smart aleck

  • stinker


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Robber’s Cave Study

Bean Toss:

  • Collected as many beans as possible

  • Estimate # beans in a sack

  • Overestimated beans collected by in-group

  • Underestimated beans collected by out-group

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Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 3: Restoring Harmony

  • Create harmonious environment

  • with superordinate goals

  • (goals that can only be achieved if both groups work together cooperatively)


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Robber’s Cave Study

  • Competition led to prejudice.

  • When competition removed, prejudice stopped


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Minimal Group Paradigm

  • Simple distinction

  • between groups causes bias

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Minimal Group Paradigm

  • 1. Alone & anonymous

  • 2. Estimated dots

  • 3. Labeled: Over- or Underestimators

  • 4. Completed pay off matrices

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Minimal Group Paradigm

  • Payoff Matrix

  • #26, one of the:

  • overestimators

  • (in-group) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

  • #17, one of the: 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25

  • underestimators

  • (out-group)

  • Boys most often selected 12:11 strategy

  • Fairness combined with ingroup profit

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