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STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE






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STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE. A, B, C’s. A = Affect (prejudice) B = Behavior (discrimination) C = Cognitions (stereotypes). Prejudice, Discrimination, & Stereotypes. Prejudice: Positive or negative feeling about a person based on attitude about the person’s social group membership
STEREOTYPES & PREJUDICE

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Slide1 l.jpgSlide 1

  • STEREOTYPES

  • & PREJUDICE

A b c s l.jpgSlide 2

A, B, C’s

  • A = Affect (prejudice)

  • B = Behavior (discrimination)

  • C = Cognitions (stereotypes)

Prejudice discrimination stereotypes l.jpgSlide 3

Prejudice, Discrimination, & Stereotypes

  • Prejudice: Positive or negative feeling about a person based on attitude about the person’s social group membership

  • Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a person or group in comparison to others who are not members of the same social group

  • Stereotypes: Attributes believed to describe a social group

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Group differences l.jpgSlide 4

Group Differences

  • Groups differences exist:

    • College drop out rates

    • College GPA

    • SAT scores

    • GRE scores

    • ACT scores

Stereotype threat l.jpgSlide 5

Stereotype Threat

  • Fear that one will be viewed or treated in way consistent with a negative stereotype, or fear that one will confirm the stereotype

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Stereotype threat study steele aronson 1995 l.jpgSlide 6

Stereotype Threat StudySteele & Aronson (1995)

Invalid Test

Valid Test

AA = W

AA < W

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Stereotype threat study steele aronson 19957 l.jpgSlide 7

Stereotype Threat StudySteele & Aronson (1995)

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Stereotypes l.jpgSlide 8

Stereotypes

  • Attributes believed

  • to describe a group.

Stereotypes9 l.jpgSlide 9

Stereotypes

  • Personal stereotype: attributes an individual believes describes a group

  • Consensual stereotype: attributes many people believe describe a group

Stereotype formation l.jpgSlide 10

Stereotype Formation

  • Categorization:

  • Classifying stimuli

  • into different groups

Labeled lines study tajfel wilkes 1963 l.jpgSlide 11

A

B

Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

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Labeled lines study tajfel wilkes 196312 l.jpgSlide 12

Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

  • The labels caused participants to:

  • perceive the lines in group A as highly similar to to one another

  • 2. perceive lines in group B to be highly similar to one another

  • 3. perceive large differences between the line groups

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Labeled lines study tajfel wilkes 196313 l.jpgSlide 13

Labeled Lines StudyTajfel & Wilkes (1963)

Overestimate similarity within groups

  • (within category homogeneity)

    Exaggerate differences between groups

  • (accentuation of inter-category difference)

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Stereotype formation14 l.jpgSlide 14

Stereotype Formation

  • People naturally categorize others into groups

People perceive members of a group as more similar to one another than they really are and as more different from other groups than they really are

The ways that group members are perceived to be similar to one another and different from other groups becomes the content of the stereotype associated with their social group

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Outgroup homogeneity effect l.jpgSlide 15

Outgroup Homogeneity Effect

  • People perceive out-group members as more similar than in-group members

  • Amount of contact

  • Intimacy of contact

Stereotype maintenance l.jpgSlide 16

Stereotype Maintenance

  • Subtyping:

  • Disconfirming targets tagged as “exceptions to the rule”

Stereotyping l.jpgSlide 17

African

American

White

Stereotyping

  • Applying one’s stereotype to an individual

Ambiguous Behavior

(e.g., poking)

More mean

& threatening

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Function of stereotypes l.jpgSlide 18

Function of Stereotypes

  • Cognitive Miser Perspective:

  • Stereotyping easier than

  • judging targets according

  • to personal attributes

Time pressure study kruglanski freund 1983 l.jpgSlide 19

Time Pressure StudyKruglanski & Freund (1983)

Essay

Sephardic

Jew

Ashkenazi

Jew

Manipulation

Time Pressure

No Time Pressure

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Time pressure study kruglanski freund 198320 l.jpgSlide 20

B

C

D

D

Time Pressure StudyKruglanski & Freund (1983)

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Self fulfilling prophecies l.jpgSlide 21

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

  • A false belief that leads to its own fulfillment:

  • Perceiver develops false belief about a target

  • Perceiver treats target in a manner consistent with false belief

  • Target responds to the treatment in such a way as to confirm the originally false belief

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Two types of sfps l.jpgSlide 22

Two Types of SFPs

  • Positive SFPs:

  • Perceiver overestimates target’s ability

  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that overly positive belief

  • Target responds by confirming the overly positive belief

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Two types of sfps23 l.jpgSlide 23

Two Types of SFPs

  • Negative SFPs:

  • Perceiver underestimates target’s ability

  • Perceiver treats target consistent with that overly negative belief

  • Target responds by confirming the overly negative belief

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Dumb rat smart rat study l.jpgSlide 24

Learned the

maze better

Dumb Rat - Smart Rat Study

Positive Belief

Negative Belief

Smart

Rat

Dumb

Rat

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Self fulfilling prophecies and stereotypes l.jpgSlide 25

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Stereotypes

  • Self-fulfilling prophecies

  • can contribute to social problems

Interview study l.jpgSlide 26

Interview Study

  • Study 1

  • Do W treat AA and W different?

  • Participants interviewed confederate for a job

    Confederate: African American or White

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Interview study27 l.jpgSlide 27

Interview Study

  • Results: Study 1

    Interview length: AA < W

    Distance: AA > W

    Eye contact: AA < W

    Speech dysfluencies: AA > W

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Interview study28 l.jpgSlide 28

Interview Study

  • Study 2

  • Does differential treatment

  • influence behavior?

    Confederates interviewed participant for job

    Treated participant like AA or W were treated in Study 1

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Slide29 l.jpgSlide 29

Interview Study

Results: Study 2

Treated like

African

Americans

Treated like

Whites

Worse

Performance

Better

Performance

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Prejudice l.jpgSlide 30

Prejudice

  • Positive or negative feeling about person based on attitude about person’s group

Causes of prejudice l.jpgSlide 31

Causes of Prejudice

  • 1. Competition between groups

  • 2. Simple distinction between groups

Realistic group conflict theory l.jpgSlide 32

Realistic Group Conflict Theory

  • Prejudice stems from

  • competition between groups

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Summer camp studies l.jpgSlide 33

Summer Camp Studies

Purpose:

Competition

Prejudice

Robber s cave study l.jpgSlide 34

Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 1: In-group Identity

  • Build cohesion among in-group

Robber s cave study35 l.jpgSlide 35

Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 2: Intergroup Conflict

  • Create competitive environment

Robber s cave study36 l.jpgSlide 36

Robber’s Cave Study

  • Each boy rated own group and other group

  • brave

  • tough

  • friendly

  • sneaky

  • smart aleck

  • stinker

Robber s cave study37 l.jpgSlide 37

Robber’s Cave Study

Bean Toss:

  • Collected as many beans as possible

  • Estimate # beans in a sack

  • Overestimated beans collected by in-group

  • Underestimated beans collected by out-group

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Robber s cave study38 l.jpgSlide 38

Robber’s Cave Study

  • Phase 3: Restoring Harmony

  • Create harmonious environment

  • with superordinate goals

  • (goals that can only be achieved if both groups work together cooperatively)

Robber s cave study39 l.jpgSlide 39

Robber’s Cave Study

  • Competition led to prejudice.

  • When competition removed, prejudice stopped

Minimal group paradigm l.jpgSlide 40

Minimal Group Paradigm

  • Simple distinction

  • between groups causes bias

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Minimal group paradigm41 l.jpgSlide 41

Minimal Group Paradigm

  • 1. Alone & anonymous

  • 2. Estimated dots

  • 3. Labeled: Over- or Underestimators

  • 4. Completed pay off matrices

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Minimal group paradigm42 l.jpgSlide 42

Minimal Group Paradigm

  • Payoff Matrix

  • #26, one of the:

  • overestimators

  • (in-group) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

  • #17, one of the: 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25

  • underestimators

  • (out-group)

  • Boys most often selected 12:11 strategy

  • Fairness combined with ingroup profit

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