Nixon and ford
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Nixon and Ford


Bellwork

  • The 1960s was an era of turbulent change. Violence erupted in both the north and the south from the Civil Rights movement. Protests engulfed campuses all over America. Leaders were assassinated, and many Americans began to wonder if the country was on the right path. What are the defining characteristics of the type of leader you believe the U.S. needs in a time of crisis?


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Election of 1968


Democratic Party


Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated


Race Riots


Race Riots


Democratic National Convention


Republican Party


America Independent Party

  • George C. Wallace

  • Dixiecrat

  • Reestablish Jim Crow South

  • Nuclear war on Vietnam


Results

  • Nixon won:

    • 31.8 million

    • 301 electoral votes

  • Wallace’s Results

    • Won 10 million popular votes

    • Largest third-party vote in American history


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Foreign Policy

  • Henry Kissinger

    • Secretary of State


Détente

  • Easing of Tensions


Nixon’s Détente With BeijingPing-Pong Diplomacy

  • March 1971 - Lifts restrictions on travel to China

  • June 1971 – Ended 21-year embargo on trade with China

  • February 1972 – Nixon visits China


Nixon’s Détente With Beijing and Moscow

  • Nixon traveled to the Soviet Union in May 1972


Nixon’s Détente With Beijing and Moscow

  • The Deal

    • Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty I (SALT I) –


Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty I (SALT I)

  • Five-year agreement that held the number of ICBMs at 1972 levels

  • Step forward in limiting nuclear arms,


  • Both started developing MIRVs


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Welfare Programs

  • Expanded welfare programs:

    • Food Stamps

    • Aid to families with Dependent Children (AFDC)


Environmental Actions (1970)

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1970


Environmental Actions (1970)

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1970

  • Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) 1970


Environmental Actions (1970)

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1970

  • Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) 1970

  • Clean Air Act of 1970


Environmental Actions (1970)

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 1970

  • Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) 1970

  • Clean Air Act of 1970

  • Endangered Species Act of 1973


Inflation

  • Removed U.S. off the gold standard


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Election of 1972


Election of 1972

  • Southern Strategy

    • To achieve a solid majority in 1972, he:

      • Appointed conservative Supreme Court justices

      • Softly applied civil rights

      • Opposed school busing to achieve racial balance


Election of 1972

  • Results of the Election of 1972

    • Nixon won:

      • 47.2 million-29.2 million

      • 520-17


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis

  • Attack In the Middle East

    • October 1973

    • Syrians and Egyptians surprise attacked Israel

    • U.S. supported Israel


Oil Embargo

  • late October 1973,

  • OPEC led by Arab nations put an oil embargo on the U.S.


Check Up!

  • Nixon believed that he was going to be remembered as one of the greatest presidents of the 20th Century, and had recording devices installed in the White House so that historians could later examine the actions he took as president.

    • Briefly create a list of Nixon’s accomplishments.

    • Then create a list of the accomplishments of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and LBJ.

    • Based on your list evaluate Nixon’s presidency.


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Pentagon Papers

  • 1971:Daniel Ellsberg –

    • a former Defense Department official

    • Pentagon Papers to the New York Times


Plumbers

  • Response

    • Plumbers – Special White House unit created to stop government leaks.

    • Goal: gather intelligence/political information


The Watergate Break-In

  • Watergate Washington, D.C.  

  • Wiretapped the phones at the DNC headquarters


The Watergate Break-In

  • Nixon authorized CIA to stop investigation on the grounds that the matter involved “national security”


Watergate Scandal

  • January 1973 –

    • Watergate burglar Trial

      • Results: All either pleaded guilty or were found guilty

    • Nixon approved “hush money” to at least one of the defendants


Watergate Scandal

  • May 1973 –

    • John Dean (former White House lawyer) revealed recording system in White House


Watergate Scandal

  • October 1973 –

    • VP Spiro Agnew accused of taking bribes

    • Agnew resigned

    • Gerald Ford became VP


Watergate Scandal

  • January 1974 –

    • Congress ordered Nixon to turn over the tapes.  

    • Nixon refused, citing the executive privilege – the power of the president to withhold information secret that is vital to the nation’s security


Watergate Scandal

  • July 1974 –

    • Supreme Court ruled that tapes must be turned over

    • Tape recorded Nixon’s giving order to CIA


Watergate Scandal

  • The House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach the President on the following charges:

    • Obstruction of justice

    • Abuse of power

    • Refusal to obey a congressional order to turn over his tapes


Impeachment Process

  • Impeachment: To bring official charges against the president (majority vote in House of Representatives)

  • Trial/Removal: The individual stands trial (Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote it needed for removal)


Impeachments in U.S. History


Resignation

  • August 9, 1974 –

    • Nixon became the first President ever to resign

    • VP Gerald Ford was sworn in.

  • Should Nixon be charged with a crime?


  • “When the President does it, that means that it is not illegal.”

    -Richard Nixon

  • Should Nixon be charged with a crime?


Resignation

  • August 9, 1974 –

    • Nixon became the first President ever to resign

    • VP Gerald Ford was sworn in.  A month later Ford pardoned Nixon.  


Nixon and Ford

  • Election of 1968

  • Nixon

    • Foreign Policy and Détente

    • Domestic Policy

  • Election of 1972

  • Oil Embargo

  • Watergate

  • Ford


Ford

  • Ford’s Critics

    • When Nixon resigned in August 1974, Ford became the first non-elected President.  He appointed Nelson Rockefeller to be VP.  Now, both the P and VP were appointed.  People criticized him as being an illegitimate president

    • Some people, including LBJ, believed Ford to be a dim-witted former college football player

    • The new President took a lot of criticism from the public for pardoning Nixon.  Some people had even suggested that a bargain had been made between Nixon and Ford before he had left office


Ford

  • Helsinki Accords

    • Ford generally followed Nixon’s approach, working for détente

    • In 1975, Ford, the Soviet Union, and about 30 other nations signed the Helsinki Accords

    • In signing the agreement, the countries pledged to cooperate economically, respect existing national boundaries, and promote human rights


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