Mutations and Regulation. Making Mistakes. Mutations = changes in the genetic material (mistakes) Several types: Gene mutations = mutation to a single gene Chromosomal mutations = mutations to the whole chromosome. 1. GENE Mutations.
a) Substitutions - one nucleotide is substituted for another
b) Insertion: one nucleotide added
c) Deletion: one nucleotide deleted
b) Duplications – extra copies of part of the chromosome is made
c) Inversions – reverse the direction of some of the chromosome
d) Translocations – part breaks off and attached to another chromosome
defects in nearly all organs.
1. DNA and RNA polymerase and other enzymes also “proof-read” the DNA and RNA to fix mutations if possible.
2. Repressors are proteins that bind to specific genes on chromosomes stopping transcription of a gene until the gene is needed.
3. Other types of proteins can speed up transcription if necessary.