Lecturing with PowerPoint

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Workshop Outline. Lecture basicsLecture design for maximum student learningDelivery tips for lecturesPowerPoint design specifics for lectures. Lecture Basics. DefinitionsEffectiveness of lecturersGoals of lectures and learning technologies. What is a lecture?. Traditionally didacticMore inte

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Lecturing with PowerPoint

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1. Lecturing (with PowerPoint) Donna Ellis, TRACE & Colin Campbell, IST

2. Workshop Outline Lecture basics Lecture design for maximum student learning Delivery tips for lectures PowerPoint design specifics for lectures Plan for First Hour: ·  Lecture basics ·  Lecture design for maximum student learning ·  PowerPoint design specifics for lectures ·  Delivery tips for lectures   ·  Questions, sample lecture, handout to annotate Plan for First Hour: ·  Lecture basics ·  Lecture design for maximum student learning ·  PowerPoint design specifics for lectures ·  Delivery tips for lectures   ·  Questions, sample lecture, handout to annotate

3. Lecture Basics Definitions Effectiveness of lecturers Goals of lectures and learning technologies Definitions Effectiveness of Lecturers Goals of Lectures and Learning TechnologiesDefinitions Effectiveness of Lecturers Goals of Lectures and Learning Technologies

4. What is a lecture? Traditionally didactic More interactive approaches “A teaching technique that involves some talking on the part of the instructor, may involve student input, and may be supported by visuals” ·  Traditionally didactic – lecturer talks and students take notes – may or may not have any visual support ·  But many other options exist, from interactive lectures where an activity is couched at either end by a mini lecture to problem-solving sessions where student input is critical throughout the entire lecture – often rely more on visual support ·  Working definition: A teaching technique that involves some talking on the part of the instructor, may involve student input, and may be supported by visuals ·  Traditionally didactic – lecturer talks and students take notes – may or may not have any visual support ·  But many other options exist, from interactive lectures where an activity is couched at either end by a mini lecture to problem-solving sessions where student input is critical throughout the entire lecture – often rely more on visual support ·  Working definition: A teaching technique that involves some talking on the part of the instructor, may involve student input, and may be supported by visuals

5. What makes a lecturer ineffective? Brainstorm with whole group – one white boardBrainstorm with whole group – one white board

6. What makes a lecturer effective? Indicates value of course to students Motivates students to do their best Communicates effectively with students Provides a clear structure Creates a comfortable environment for learning Shows concern for students Is knowledgeable about course material ·  Indicates value of course/lecture to students ·  Motivates students to do their best ·  Communicates effectively with students (pitches material to right level, delivers material at an appropriate pace) ·  Provides a clear structure ·  Creates a comfortable environment for learning (names, approachable) ·  Shows concern for students ·  Is knowledgeable about course material   So we know what we’re supposed to do. How can we do it? Today’s session will focus on basic principles of effective lecturing and how to incorporate PowerPoint into our lectures. ·  Indicates value of course/lecture to students ·  Motivates students to do their best ·  Communicates effectively with students (pitches material to right level, delivers material at an appropriate pace) ·  Provides a clear structure ·  Creates a comfortable environment for learning (names, approachable) ·  Shows concern for students ·  Is knowledgeable about course material   So we know what we’re supposed to do. How can we do it? Today’s session will focus on basic principles of effective lecturing and how to incorporate PowerPoint into our lectures.

7. Goals of a lecture Impart information efficiently Show conceptual organization Clarify tricky issues Reiterate critical points Motivate students to learn more Be engaging Help students learn material ·  Why do we lecture? Students like lectures! Why? Lectures can: ·  Be efficient for imparting information about the discipline area ·  Allow us to show the conceptual organization of the material (“big picture”) ·  Clarify tricky issues ·  Reiterate critical points ·  Motivate students to learn more about a topic ·  Be engaging – satisfy need for interpersonal connection ·  Help students learn the material ·  Why do we lecture? Students like lectures! Why? Lectures can: ·  Be efficient for imparting information about the discipline area ·  Allow us to show the conceptual organization of the material (“big picture”) ·  Clarify tricky issues ·  Reiterate critical points ·  Motivate students to learn more about a topic ·  Be engaging – satisfy need for interpersonal connection ·  Help students learn the material

8. Goals of learning technologies Support instruction and student learning Easy to maintain Can incorporate many tools into one Show concepts that are difficult to explain or visualize ·  Support instruction and student learning ·  Easy to maintain ·  Can incorporate many tools into one ·  Show concepts that are difficult to explain or visualize without the technology (i.e., piston firing, changing borders in Europe, affects of interest rates on investments) ·  Support instruction and student learning ·  Easy to maintain ·  Can incorporate many tools into one ·  Show concepts that are difficult to explain or visualize without the technology (i.e., piston firing, changing borders in Europe, affects of interest rates on investments)

9. Workshop Outline Lecture basics Lecture design for maximum student learning PowerPoint design specifics for lectures Delivery tips for lectures

10. Lecture design for maximum student learning Consider course goals and structure Consider audience Use clear structure for each lecture Design lecture in small blocks Encourage note-taking Prepare own notes How can we help to maximize our students’ learning during lectures? Let’s consider this from the lecture design perspective first ·  Apt quote to start: “Most of us are so busy ‘covering the material’ in a lecture that we miss the chance to ‘uncover it’” (Jennifer Horgan, p.86) Show preview slide now How can we help to maximize our students’ learning during lectures? Let’s consider this from the lecture design perspective first ·  Apt quote to start: “Most of us are so busy ‘covering the material’ in a lecture that we miss the chance to ‘uncover it’” (Jennifer Horgan, p.86) Show preview slide now

11. Consider your course goals and structure Identify your goals and how much students need to know Pick central points that tie together many points – provide big picture Put points into logical sequence Highlight difficult concepts ·  What are you trying to achieve in this course? How much do the students need to know so they can achieve the set goals? You know much more than they will need to know ·  Pick central points that tie together as many other topics as possible and make this framework explicit for the students at the beginning and throughout the term = big picture ·  Put points into a logical sequence: topic by topic, chronological, causal, cumulative, problem-centred, spiral (TRACE tip sheet) ·  Highlight difficult concepts where a technology like PowerPoint may be able to help clarify – may not need to use for every lecture ·  What are you trying to achieve in this course? How much do the students need to know so they can achieve the set goals? You know much more than they will need to know ·  Pick central points that tie together as many other topics as possible and make this framework explicit for the students at the beginning and throughout the term = big picture ·  Put points into a logical sequence: topic by topic, chronological, causal, cumulative, problem-centred, spiral (TRACE tip sheet) ·  Highlight difficult concepts where a technology like PowerPoint may be able to help clarify – may not need to use for every lecture

12. Consider your audience Match content to their background and interests Anticipate and answer their questions Identify difficult concepts Understand expectations of today’s students ·  Match content to their background knowledge and their interests ·  Anticipate questions they would have and strive to answer them in the lecture ·  Anticipate concepts they will find particularly difficult and be sure to cover in more than one way (explain, example, physical demonstration) ·  Understand that today’s students appreciate and often expect the use of technology (PowerPoint) in the classroom ·  Match content to their background knowledge and their interests ·  Anticipate questions they would have and strive to answer them in the lecture ·  Anticipate concepts they will find particularly difficult and be sure to cover in more than one way (explain, example, physical demonstration) ·  Understand that today’s students appreciate and often expect the use of technology (PowerPoint) in the classroom

13. Use a clear structure Know your “take-home message” Begin with short review then preview Give motivation statement Cover 2-4 main points Make transitions with mini summaries Wrap up with complete summary and preview for next class ·  Know the “take-home message” before you start & reiterate throughout ·  Begin lecture with a SHORT review from last day (5-10 minutes) and then advance organizer for current class – “Today, we’ll cover x, y, & z” ·  Then give motivation statement – why do the students want to learn this material? (i.e., may be on exam, really fascinating, use in later courses) ·  Only cover 2-4 major points in each 50-minute lecture – don’t overload with content – “just because you say it doesn’t mean the students have learned it” ·  Make transitions between sections with mini summaries – make connections between current content and other lectures ·  Do a complete summary at the end and give preview/assignments for next class·  Know the “take-home message” before you start & reiterate throughout ·  Begin lecture with a SHORT review from last day (5-10 minutes) and then advance organizer for current class – “Today, we’ll cover x, y, & z” ·  Then give motivation statement – why do the students want to learn this material? (i.e., may be on exam, really fascinating, use in later courses) ·  Only cover 2-4 major points in each 50-minute lecture – don’t overload with content – “just because you say it doesn’t mean the students have learned it” ·  Make transitions between sections with mini summaries – make connections between current content and other lectures ·  Do a complete summary at the end and give preview/assignments for next class

14. Use a clear structure – cont’d Prepare 12-20 slides per 50-minute lecture Budget time for questions and activities PowerPoint works best with linear, hierarchical format A less linear format is possible ·  This translates to about 12-20 text-based slides for a 50 minute lecture – 1-4 minutes/visual ·  Budget time for questions and/or other activities (then increase by 50%) ·  PowerPoint works well for this linear format because of built-in hierarchical structure ·  Can also adapt PowerPoint to be more non-linear through the use of idea clusters and menu slides – key ideas become “menu slides” which link to layers of explanatory slides below // concept map – put button on each slide to return to main menu slide so can get out of a topic area at various levels of depth – helps you to be able to customize a lecture ·  This translates to about 12-20 text-based slides for a 50 minute lecture – 1-4 minutes/visual ·  Budget time for questions and/or other activities (then increase by 50%) ·  PowerPoint works well for this linear format because of built-in hierarchical structure ·  Can also adapt PowerPoint to be more non-linear through the use of idea clusters and menu slides – key ideas become “menu slides” which link to layers of explanatory slides below // concept map – put button on each slide to return to main menu slide so can get out of a topic area at various levels of depth – helps you to be able to customize a lecture

15. Design lecture in small blocks Divide lecture in 10-15 minute blocks for attention span Get students interacting with material What to intersperse? ·  Average adult attention span = 10-20 minutes – highest at start, drops continuously after about 10 minutes, then comes back at end ·  Work with this and design lecture in 10-15 minute blocks ·  Also, learning can be linked to previous learning if students use it within a short time of its initial presentation – get students interacting with content! What to intersperse? (brainstorm) ·  Average adult attention span = 10-20 minutes – highest at start, drops continuously after about 10 minutes, then comes back at end ·  Work with this and design lecture in 10-15 minute blocks ·  Also, learning can be linked to previous learning if students use it within a short time of its initial presentation – get students interacting with content! What to intersperse? (brainstorm)

16. What to intersperse? Whole group discussion Small group or individual problem-solving, activity, or project Video clips Demonstrations – live or virtual Quiz Question and answer session Examples Rhetorical questions ·  Watch non-verbal cues for signs to change (yawns, chair shuffling, whispers, glazed looks) ·  Watch non-verbal cues for signs to change (yawns, chair shuffling, whispers, glazed looks)

17. Encourage note-taking Have a clear structure Pace delivery to fit note-taking Only put key points on visuals Use progressive disclosure Teach note-taking skills ·  Why encourage note-taking? o   Aids memory of the lecture o   Engages students in lecture = attentiveness ·  How? Have a clear structure ·  Pace delivery to fit note-taking – give periodic pauses to check notes or ask clarification questions ·  Writing on the board has worked well to pace lectures – helps you plan what students’ notes should look like (they write down all you do) ·  With pre-prepared visuals such as PowerPoint slides = easy to go too fast and overload students ·  One “remedy” is to print out handouts, but make sure they are handouts to annotate – students still need to be writing and engaging with the material – may not want to use PP handouts – harder to annotate, both for linear and mind map notetakers – can A) print slides (2 up) or B) export to Word to format ·  Be sure to give them diagrams as they are often copied incorrectly ·  Only put key info on visuals – key words, critical definitions, formulae ·  Use progressive disclosure to keep student attention focused – most critical when do not provide handouts – can use full screen previews as long as you tell students you will spend time explaining each point – they will learn that they don’t need to madly copy down the material all at once – will learn your lecturing style ·  Teach note-taking skills (TRACE tip sheet) ·  Why encourage note-taking? o   Aids memory of the lecture o   Engages students in lecture = attentiveness ·  How? Have a clear structure ·  Pace delivery to fit note-taking – give periodic pauses to check notes or ask clarification questions ·  Writing on the board has worked well to pace lectures – helps you plan what students’ notes should look like (they write down all you do) ·  With pre-prepared visuals such as PowerPoint slides = easy to go too fast and overload students ·  One “remedy” is to print out handouts, but make sure they are handouts to annotate – students still need to be writing and engaging with the material – may not want to use PP handouts – harder to annotate, both for linear and mind map notetakers – can A) print slides (2 up) or B) export to Word to format ·  Be sure to give them diagrams as they are often copied incorrectly ·  Only put key info on visuals – key words, critical definitions, formulae ·  Use progressive disclosure to keep student attention focused – most critical when do not provide handouts – can use full screen previews as long as you tell students you will spend time explaining each point – they will learn that they don’t need to madly copy down the material all at once – will learn your lecturing style ·  Teach note-taking skills (TRACE tip sheet)

18. Prepare your own notes Not a script, but an outline Be flexible Include examples, analogies, definitions, solved equations Add delivery notes Limit to 1-3 pages Avoid using screen as notes ·  Don’t need a script, but you do need some notes – list of major points, detailed outline, tree diagram (experiment to find what works for you) ·  Allow yourself to be somewhat flexible and spontaneous based on student feedback (PP can make this hard to do unless use more non-linear approach) ·  Include examples, metaphors, analogies, key definitions, solved equations, etc. in your notes ·  Also include notes about delivery, visuals, activities, questions to ask ·  Strive for 1-3 pages/lecture (if no slides) – PP has notes function, but you end up with 1 page/slide – too many pages – you may choose to use PP handout instead – can write your own notes beside each slide or can print notes when export to Word – easier to cue your comments to your slide changes and fewer pages ·  Avoid making the screen your notes pages – you do need to interact periodically with the screen to focus the students’ attention on it, but don’t read off the screen – it’s not in the least bit engaging!   We have a sense now of what to do to design a lecture, but how about delivering it? What an instructor chooses to present and the way the material is organized affect students’ understanding of the topic area and future learning; how the lecture is given affects students’ motivation to pay attention and do work outside of class. How can you maximize this motivation when lecturing with PowerPoint? ·  Don’t need a script, but you do need some notes – list of major points, detailed outline, tree diagram (experiment to find what works for you) ·  Allow yourself to be somewhat flexible and spontaneous based on student feedback (PP can make this hard to do unless use more non-linear approach) ·  Include examples, metaphors, analogies, key definitions, solved equations, etc. in your notes ·  Also include notes about delivery, visuals, activities, questions to ask ·  Strive for 1-3 pages/lecture (if no slides) – PP has notes function, but you end up with 1 page/slide – too many pages – you may choose to use PP handout instead – can write your own notes beside each slide or can print notes when export to Word – easier to cue your comments to your slide changes and fewer pages ·  Avoid making the screen your notes pages – you do need to interact periodically with the screen to focus the students’ attention on it, but don’t read off the screen – it’s not in the least bit engaging!   We have a sense now of what to do to design a lecture, but how about delivering it? What an instructor chooses to present and the way the material is organized affect students’ understanding of the topic area and future learning; how the lecture is given affects students’ motivation to pay attention and do work outside of class. How can you maximize this motivation when lecturing with PowerPoint?

20. Delivery tips for lectures Immediacy Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures and movement Voice Practice ·  Eye contact – look at students, not just screen (or board or notes) – helps to create connections with students, allows you to gauge note-taking, helps to keep classroom noise to a minimum ·  Facial expressions – smile! – show your enthusiasm for your material and your students – helps to build goodwill and connections ·  Gestures and movement – move naturally around the room – use remote mouse so can move around – helps to engage large class in particular ·  Voice – sound enthusiastic! – flashy PowerPoint slides won’t save a monotonous lecturer – vary speed and pitch for emphasis and energy ·  Practice with the equipment in your classroom so you know how to use all of it – fumbling is very distracting and harms your credibility ·  Watch the pacing of the lecture – don’t speed – watch students take notes (= a big complaint on their part) – talk about your points, don’t just read off screen – don’t lose your lecturing style – again, stick to putting only key words on visuals, not all subpoints, examples, etc. ·  Be prepared to lecture without PowerPoint because things can go wrong – computer incompatibilities, stolen data projectors, etc. Think in advance: what will you do? ·  Eye contact – look at students, not just screen (or board or notes) – helps to create connections with students, allows you to gauge note-taking, helps to keep classroom noise to a minimum ·  Facial expressions – smile! – show your enthusiasm for your material and your students – helps to build goodwill and connections ·  Gestures and movement – move naturally around the room – use remote mouse so can move around – helps to engage large class in particular ·  Voice – sound enthusiastic! – flashy PowerPoint slides won’t save a monotonous lecturer – vary speed and pitch for emphasis and energy ·  Practice with the equipment in your classroom so you know how to use all of it – fumbling is very distracting and harms your credibility ·  Watch the pacing of the lecture – don’t speed – watch students take notes (= a big complaint on their part) – talk about your points, don’t just read off screen – don’t lose your lecturing style – again, stick to putting only key words on visuals, not all subpoints, examples, etc. ·  Be prepared to lecture without PowerPoint because things can go wrong – computer incompatibilities, stolen data projectors, etc. Think in advance: what will you do?

22. PowerPoint design specifics for lectures Overall issues to consider Slide content Text characteristics Use of colour Special effects

23. Overall issues Match instructional needs with appropriate technology Use visuals to communicate messages May need to re-think course when use a technology Initially may need more preparation time, but easy and cost-effective to maintain ·  Match instructional needs with appropriate technology – can use combo ·  Goal of any visual is to communicate a message, not distract the viewers ·  Multimedia presentations are great for searching, animating, linking, and visualizing information ·  You may need to re-think your course based on how you will use the technology – can you now show concepts that you never could before? ·  Initially, may need more preparation time, but easy and cost-effective to maintain ·  Match instructional needs with appropriate technology – can use combo ·  Goal of any visual is to communicate a message, not distract the viewers ·  Multimedia presentations are great for searching, animating, linking, and visualizing information ·  You may need to re-think your course based on how you will use the technology – can you now show concepts that you never could before? ·  Initially, may need more preparation time, but easy and cost-effective to maintain

24. PowerPoint design specifics for lectures Overall issues to consider Slide content Text characteristics Use of colour Special effects

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