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Group 5 Alex Guerrero Andrew Duffy Bernard Hsu Daniyal Qamar Jeff Tyska Ryan Kosak Tomi Damo Feb. 24, 2011. Ultrafiltraiton. In this lab you will be separating milk solids from a milk-water mixture using ultrafiltration . Feed stream = milk-water mixture

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Ultrafiltraiton

Group 5

Alex Guerrero

Andrew Duffy

Bernard Hsu

DaniyalQamar

Jeff Tyska

Ryan Kosak

TomiDamo

Feb. 24, 2011

Ultrafiltraiton


Introduction

In this lab you will be separating milk solids from a milk-water mixture using ultrafiltration.

Feed stream = milk-water mixture

Retenate = highly concentrated milk solid solution

Permeate = clean water the passed through filter

Introduction


Purpose

Purpose

The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the effect of pressure

drop on the permeate flux in and ultrafiltration system.

A Milk-Water mixture will be fed into the system and clean water

will be the permeate

NOTE: The key to this lab is to work quickly and efficiently.


Theory

Separation based on differing

Particle sizes.

Theory

Milk proteins are too large to penetrate

membrane but water passes through.

Strathmann 686

Performance determined by filtration rate,

membrane flux, and separation properties.


Theory permeate flux

Theory: Permeate Flux

Q: solvent flux (L/(M^2*time))

Lp: membrane permeability (L/(atm*m^2*time))

ΔP = pressure drop (atm)


Theory solvent flux

Theory: Solvent Flux

Jsolv = flux of solvent leaving the ultrafilter (m/s)

Ksolv = permeability of the solvent through membrane (m2 / (psi-s))

Pr = total pressure on the retentate or high pressure side (psi)

Pp = total pressure on the permeate or low pressure side (psi)

tms = thickness of the membrane skin during separation (m)


Theory concentration factor

Theory: Concentration Factor

Voriginal= volume of the original solution (L)

Vconcentrate = volume of concentrated skim milk (L)

Vpermeate = volume of the permeated water (L)

R = recovery of the feed stream that becomes permeate (unitless)


Apparatus

Apparatus


Materials

Materials


Safety

Safety

Phosphoric Acid: Corrosive and could cause burns.

Bleach: Skin and eye irritant. Toxic if ingested in high concentration.

Sodium Hydroxide: Corrosive and could cause burns.

Short and long term injuries occur if ingested.


Procedure

Procedure

Water Run:

1. Turn on Pump.

2. Adjust inlet pressure to 10 PSIG.

4. Adjust Outlet pressure to 25 PSIG.

5. Run for 15 minutes.

Acid Run:

1. Make 2.5 pH phosphoric soln.

2. Run system at above pressure for 10 minutes.

3.Close outlet valve and run for 5 more minutes.

Drain/Rinse Cycle:

1. Run deionized water through the system.

Caustic Cycle:

1. Make 1 wt% NaOH solution.

2. Run system as above for 15 minutes.


Procedure continued

Procedure Continued

Backwash:

1. Adjust valves for backwash cycle.

2. Turn on backwash pump.

3. Run long enough to wash system.

Bleach Cycle:

1. Make 200ppm Bleach solution.

2. Run as before for 15 minutes.

Water Flux Testing:

1. Determine water flux with inlet pressure at 25PSIG and outlet at 5, 10,

15, and 20PSIG.

Skim Milk:

1. Add 80 L of DI water and 1 gallon of skim milk to process tank.

2. Operate system and measure flux with inlet pressure at 25PSIG

and outlet at 5, 10, 15, and 20PSIG.


References

References

  • Strathmann, Heinrich. "Membranes and Membrane Separation Processes." Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 7th. 40. New York, NY: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2010. (pp: 667-724) Print.

  • Wankat, Phillip C. Separation Process Engineering. (2nd Edition). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. (pp: 573 – 579) Print

  • McCabe, Warren L., Julian C. Smith, and Peter Harriott. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. (pp: 1058-1065) Print.

  • "Koch Membrane :: Ultrafiltration." Koch Membrane Systems. Web. 13 Feb. 2011. <http://www.kochmembrane.com/sep_uf.html>.

  • Neligan, Patrick. "What Is the Difference between Dialysis and Ultrafiltration?" Welcome to Critical Care Medicine Tutorials. Web. 13 Feb. 2011. <http://www.ccmtutorials.com/renal/rrt/page2.htm>


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