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IB Biology. Ecology Unit Option G1 – G2 Selected Topics. Competitive Exclusion. No two species in a community can occupy the same niche. Species B niche. Species A niche. Fundamental vs. Realized Niche.

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Ib biology

IB Biology

Ecology Unit Option G1 – G2

Selected Topics

Competitive exclusion

Competitive Exclusion

  • No two species in a community can occupy the same niche

Species B niche

Species A niche

Fundamental vs realized niche

Fundamental vs. Realized Niche

  • Fundamental Niche: the potential mode of existence, given the adaptation of the species

  • Realized Niche: the actual mode of existence, which results from its adaptations and competition with other species

Fundamental Niche

Competition II

Competition I

Realized Niche

Competition III



  • Total dry mass of organic matter of living organisms (measured in g m-2 yr-1)

  • A table can be used to determine biomass of living organisms based on their weight (how do you suppose this is made?)

  • Can be calculated for large areas by random selection of a sample ecosystem subdivision

    • Sample plot can be measured thoroughly and a table can be used or…

    • Sample plot organic matter could be collected, dried, and weighed

Primary succession

Primary Succession

  • Occurs when plants begin growing on previously lifeless areas. (i.e. volcanic island)

  • Little to no soil

  • Lichens (decompose thin layers of rock)

  • Pioneering plants

  • Mosses

  • Soil buildup

  • Low productivity

Secondary succession

Secondary Succession

  • New group of organisms takes over after a dramatic environmental change (forest fire, flood, etc…)

  • Soil already present

  • Faster process

  • High productivity


Organisms effect on the abiotic environment

Organisms effect on the abiotic environment

  • Increase in organic matter

  • Soil depth

  • Erosion

  • Soil structure

  • Mineral recycling

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