Taiwan. Education Reform in Taiwan – Multiple Voices and Practices. Hui-lan Wang (firstname.lastname@example.org) Department of Elementary Education National Pingtung University of Education(NPUE), Taiwan, ROC. The profile of Taiwan (2004-2005).
Education Reform in Taiwan –Multiple Voices and Practices
Hui-lan Wang (email@example.com)
Department of Elementary Education
National Pingtung University of Education(NPUE),
The total area of Taiwan is nearly 36,000 km2, which
is about 220 km at its widest point and 130 km at its
The world's 17th largest economy, 15th largest trading nation, and
the third largest foreign exchange reserves in the world.
GDP: US$305.4 billion GNP: US$316.7 billion
Per capita GDP: US$13,529 Per capita GNP: US$14,032
Economic growth rate: 5.71%
Agriculture(1.74%) Industry(29.54%) Service(68.72%) of GDP
54.84% at junior colleges, 48.78% at universities and independent
are always the result and the symptom
of the social transformations
in terms of which they are to be
(Emile Durkheim 1977:166)
A shift of the new information technologies; more flexible, decentralised forms of labour processes and work organisation; decline of the old manufacturing base and the growth of the ‘sunrise’ computer-based industries; the hiving-off or constructing-out of functions and services; a greater emphasis on choice and product differentiation, on marketing, packaging and design, on the ‘targeting’ of consumers by lifestyle, taste and culture rather than by the Registrar General’s categories of social class; …(next page)
…, a decline in the proportion of the skilled, male, manual working class, the rise of the service and white-collar classes and the ‘feminisation’ of the workforce; and economy dominated by the multinationals, with their new international division of labour and their greater autonomy from nation-state control; the ‘globalisation’ of the new financial markets, linked by the communication revolution; and new forms of the spatial organization of social processes.’ (Stuart Hall, 1988:24)
the LEAs, schools and classrooms.
people (or agency) in different social positions
and relationships with different concerns and interests to
recognize the problems of education and the meanings
of education reform, and then further to interpret,
reinterpret, reposition and put into practice of official
policies of education reform according to practical social contexts
and conditions of daily life.
With the aim to correspond with the international trend
of democratization and deregulation, briefly, Taiwanese
government has initiated innovative changes during the
last two decades in order to attain the following four
(The cover pages of two economic and business journals
in Taiwan –“World” and “Global views”)
possibility for academic freedom and campus democracy.
between higher education institutions and the MOE,
more spaces for campus-based management.
differentization of functions and financial supports of
higher education institutions
Number one : Top-notch universities and research centers
a. Within five years, at least 15 departments or cross-university research centers ranking first in Asia
b. Within ten years, at least one university ranking among the world’s top 100
“de-chinese-ization” and “nationalistic”(or
Taiwanisation) curriculum reform
a. With the aims to meet the needs of national
development and to respond the expectancy of the
b. Announcement of “Grade 1-9 Curriculum
Guidelines” in 1998; implementation in primary and
secondary schools in 2001.
The trend of elementary education reform in TaiwanFive principles of curriculum revision which highlight : (a) the consistency and integrity of curriculum between primary and secondary schools; (b) learning areas and integrated instruction as the basis ; (3) basic competence as the core framework; (4) to plan the practice of English instruction in primary schools; (5) reducing the hours of instruction and construction of school-based curriculum. Seven learning areas : Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Studies, Health and Physical Education, Arts and Humanities, Integrative Activities Life Curriculum, and Information Technology Education. New issues of curriculum : environmental education, gender education, human rights education, career development education and home economics education. The establishment of “Committee of School Curriculum Development” in schools. New Instructional Assessment : multiple assessment. The outline of “Grade 1-9 Curriculum Reform” in Taiwan
* Education Reconstruction Front, (ERF, 2004) addressed four key opinions :
a. To reassess the ten years of education reform and end
the chaotic situation;
b. To make education policy transparent and respect the
views of experts in the educational field;
c. To devote more attention to disadvantaged students and
uphold social justice; and
d. To pursue excellence in education and make learning
Ball, S. J. (1994a) Education Reform: A critical and Post-structural Approach.
Buckingham: Open University Press.
Beck, U., Giddens, A. and Lash, S. (1994) Reflexive Modernization : Politics,
Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. London : Blackwell.
Beck, U. (2002) ‘The Cosmopolitian Society and its Enemies’, Theory, Culture
and Society, 19(1-2), pp.17-44.
Bernstein, B. (1990) The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse: Class, Codes
and Control, Vol. 4. London: Routledge.
Chou, C. I. (2003) The Great Experiment of Taiwanese Education(1987-2003).
Taiwan Taipei : Psychology Publisher. (in Chinese)
Durkheim, E (1977) The Evolution of Educational Thought: Lectures on the
Formation and Development of Secondary Education in France. Translated
by Peter Collins. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Habermas, J. (1973) Legitimation Crisis. Translated by Thomas McCarthy,
Hall, S. (1988) ‘Brave New World’, Marxism Today, pp. 24-29.
Kenway, J. (1994) Economing Education: the Post-Fordist Directions. Victoria:
Deakin University Press.
Law, W. W. (2002) ‘Education reform in Taiwan : a search for a national
identity through democratisation and Taiwanisation.’ . Compare, 32(1).
Mok, K. H. (2003) ‘Similar trends, diverse agendas : higher education reforms’,
East Asia. Globalization, Societies and Education, 1(2).
Offe, C. (1984) Contradictions of the Welfare State. London: Hutchinson.
Popkewitz, T. S. (1991) A Political Sociology of Educational Reform. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University.
Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2004) The Global Politics of Educational Borrowing and
Lending. NY : teachers College Press.
Wang, H. L. (1999) Higher Education Reform and 1994 New University Law in
Taiwan – A Sociological Exploration of Education Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Wales, Cardiff, UK.
Wang, H. L. (2001) Creative/Inertial Thinking — the Discourses of
Education Reform and Logic of Schools’ Life World in Taiwan. Paper
presented in the 5th Forum of Sociology of Education “The Changing of
Sociology of Education and Education Reform in Taiwan”, Taiwan. (in
Wang, H. L. (2005) Critical Pedagogy and Global Capitalism – the Reflections
of Higher Education Reformin Taiwan. Paper presented in the 11th Forum
of Sociology of Education “The Marketization of Education, Expansion of
Higher Education and the Reflections of Theories of Sociology of
Education”, Taiwan. (in Chinese)
Website of MOE in Taiwan (in English) http://184.108.40.206/english/
(Ali Mountain, Chayi, Taiwan)
Education reform, mind reform.