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Taiwan. Education Reform in Taiwan – Multiple Voices and Practices. Hui-lan Wang ([email protected]) Department of Elementary Education National Pingtung University of Education(NPUE), Taiwan, ROC. The profile of Taiwan (2004-2005).

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Taiwan

Taiwan


Education reform in taiwan multiple voices and practices

Education Reform in Taiwan –Multiple Voices and Practices

Hui-lan Wang ([email protected])

Department of Elementary Education

National Pingtung University of Education(NPUE),

Taiwan, ROC


The profile of taiwan 2004 2005

The profile of Taiwan (2004-2005)

  • Geography : Taiwan is separated from China by the Taiwan Strait.

    The total area of Taiwan is nearly 36,000 km2, which

    is about 220 km at its widest point and 130 km at its

    narrowest.

  • Population : totally 22,722,259, population density 636/km2 (Y2005)

  • Language : Mandarin, Minnanese (Taiwanese) , Hakka, Indigenous

    Languages

  • Economy(Y2004)

    The world's 17th largest economy, 15th largest trading nation, and

    the third largest foreign exchange reserves in the world.

    GDP: US$305.4 billion GNP: US$316.7 billion

    Per capita GDP: US$13,529 Per capita GNP: US$14,032

    Economic growth rate: 5.71%

    Agriculture(1.74%) Industry(29.54%) Service(68.72%) of GDP


The profile of education in taiwan 2004 2005

The profile of education in Taiwan (2004-2005)

  • Literacy rate (above age 15): 97.16%

  • Government educational outlays: 18.61% of government expenditures, 4.13% of GNP (2004)

  • Higher education institutions: 159 (75 universities, 70 independent colleges, and 14 junior colleges)

  • Students in higher education institutions: 1,285,867

  • Percentage of female students at higher education institutions:

    54.84% at junior colleges, 48.78% at universities and independent

    colleges (2003-2004)

  • Master's degree students: 135,992

  • Doctoral students: 24,409

  • Taiwan students studying abroad: 30,728

    Resource http://www.gio.gov.tw/


Education reform and social change

Education reform and social change

Educational transformations

are always the result and the symptom

of the social transformations

in terms of which they are to be

explained.

(Emile Durkheim 1977:166)


The characters of post fordism stuart hall

The characters ofPost-Fordism(Stuart Hall)

A shift of the new information technologies; more flexible, decentralised forms of labour processes and work organisation; decline of the old manufacturing base and the growth of the ‘sunrise’ computer-based industries; the hiving-off or constructing-out of functions and services; a greater emphasis on choice and product differentiation, on marketing, packaging and design, on the ‘targeting’ of consumers by lifestyle, taste and culture rather than by the Registrar General’s categories of social class; …(next page)


The characters of post fordism stuart hall1

The characters ofPost-Fordism (Stuart Hall)

…, a decline in the proportion of the skilled, male, manual working class, the rise of the service and white-collar classes and the ‘feminisation’ of the workforce; and economy dominated by the multinationals, with their new international division of labour and their greater autonomy from nation-state control; the ‘globalisation’ of the new financial markets, linked by the communication revolution; and new forms of the spatial organization of social processes.’ (Stuart Hall, 1988:24)


The cosmopolitian society ulrich beck 2002

The cosmopolitian society Ulrich Beck(2002)

  • “Cosmos” and “polis”

  • Paradoxes of globalization

  • Global-local dialectics

  • Globality (Robert Robertson)

  • Cosmospolitanization – internal globalization, globalization from within the national societies.


Why education reform happened in worldwide

Why education reform happened in worldwide ?

  • Reflexive modernity(Beck et al. 1994 )

  • The problems of late capitalist states (Offe, 1984; Habermas, 1989) – capital accumulation and economic efficiency; social order, authority, stability and the technical and managerial problems of the state itself. The above meta-problems are both structural and played out in micro-political struggles inside the state itself in which educational policies and reform are embedded.

  • “Similar trends, diverse agendas” of education reform in different countries (Mok, 2003)


Education reform in taiwan key questions

Education reform in Taiwan —key questions

  • Why and how education reform in Taiwan begun, developed and transformed?

  • How the educational state was impacted by different forces?

  • What were the dominant principles of education reform in Taiwan, particularly at the higher education and nine-year compulsory education levels (including elementary and secondary education) ?


A comprehensive framework to explore the dynamics of education reform

A comprehensive framework to explore the dynamics of education reform

  • Basil Bernstein’s framework(1997:197)

  • Macro-micro dimensions

  • Levels – international, national, the LEAs and schools.

  • Fields – politcal, economic and symbolic control fields,

    the LEAs, schools and classrooms.

  • Recontextialization and relative autonomy –

    people (or agency) in different social positions

    and relationships with different concerns and interests to

    recognize the problems of education and the meanings

    of education reform, and then further to interpret,

    reinterpret, reposition and put into practice of official

    policies of education reform according to practical social contexts

    and conditions of daily life.


The field of symbolic control

The field of symbolic control

  • Since 1980s, strong political critiques had launched by people from the academic and cultural fields. The emergence of many civic groups and social movements for education reform was a great force to resist the political control and hegemony of the KMT government and made a petition for real democracy.

  • “The Promotion of University Education Reform” (1989) was organized by scholars from universities which led to the announcement of “New University Law” (1994), highlighted the autonomy of universities.

  • “410 Education Reform Alliance” (1994) was organized mainly by scholars from universities and many civic groups which led to the announcement of “Educational Basic Law”(1999), highlighted the people’s right of learning should be guaranteed. Ten years later, “The Happy Learning Education Reform Front” (2004) was organized by similar members to continue the ideas above.


The political field the ruling elite ministers of education 1987 2005

The political field — the ruling eliteMinisters of Education (1987-2005)


The political field education reform action program erap by the moe 1998 2003

The political field —Education Reform Action Program (ERAP) by the MOE(1998-2003)

  • From 1994 to 1996, the Council of Educational Reform (CER) was built by the Executive Yuan which led by Dr. Lee Yuan-tseh, a Nobel laureate and president of Academia Sinica in Taiwan currently. The final outcomes of the CER was a “Report on Education Reform” which was produced collectively by the scholars, experts and practioners in the educational field through a long process of discussions, explorations and idea collection.

  • The ERAP, approved by the Executive Yuan in 1998, was a big packaged policy of education reform which included all levels of education with the allocation of a special budget equivalent to US$5 billion.


The political field the goals of education reform in taiwan

The political field —the goals of education reform in Taiwan

With the aim to correspond with the international trend

of democratization and deregulation, briefly, Taiwanese

government has initiated innovative changes during the

last two decades in order to attain the following four

aims:

  • to maintain equal access to education;

  • to relieve pressure from students;

  • to provide more rooms for school-based management; and

  • to improve the quality of education.


The field of production

The field of production

  • The power of global capitalism – how can we win in the very beginning ?

  • Competition, competition, competition ! – great ambition, active actions and effective strategies are extremely necessary for the accumulation of capital and benefits.

  • A concern on the human capital – next generation is globe generation, great emphasis on e-learning and foreign languages learning.

    (The cover pages of two economic and business journals

    in Taiwan –“World” and “Global views”)


The trend of higher education reform in taiwan

The trend of higher education reform in Taiwan

  • “Deregulation” : 1994 New University Law allow more

    possibility for academic freedom and campus democracy.

  • “Decentralization” : the adjustment of relationships

    between higher education institutions and the MOE,

    more spaces for campus-based management.

  • “Massification” : Rapid expansion of higher education

    institutions.

  • “Efficiency management” and “in search of excellence” :

    differentization of functions and financial supports of

    higher education institutions

  • “Quasi-marketization” of higher education


Higher education reform in taiwan in search of excellence

Higher education reform in Taiwan– in search of excellence

  • Ten New Major Construction Projects

    Number one : Top-notch universities and research centers

  • Goals: To establish first-class universities and train top talent

    a. Within five years, at least 15 departments or cross-university research centers ranking first in Asia

    b. Within ten years, at least one university ranking among the world’s top 100

  • Methods: By awarding funding of NT$10 billion per year through competitive grants, the government will promote university reform and resource integration as means of establishing inter-university research centers and developing first-class universities and top academic research centers in Asia to enhance Taiwan’s research and development foundation.

  • Special budget for 2004 to 2008: US$1.49billion

  • Expecting benefits : To increase the capital value of human resources: cultivate talent for future development and build an even more solid human resources foundation for the development of a knowledge-based economy.


The trend of compulsory education reform in taiwan

The trend of compulsory education reform in Taiwan

  • “Deregulation”, “decentralization”,

    “de-chinese-ization” and “nationalistic”(or

    Taiwanisation) curriculum reform

  • Grade 1-9 Curriculum Reform

    a. With the aims to meet the needs of national

    development and to respond the expectancy of the

    public.

    b. Announcement of “Grade 1-9 Curriculum

    Guidelines” in 1998; implementation in primary and

    secondary schools in 2001.


Taiwan

The trend of elementary education reform in TaiwanFive principles of curriculum revision which highlight : (a) the consistency and integrity of curriculum between primary and secondary schools; (b) learning areas and integrated instruction as the basis ; (3) basic competence as the core framework; (4) to plan the practice of English instruction in primary schools; (5) reducing the hours of instruction and construction of school-based curriculum. Seven learning areas : Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Studies, Health and Physical Education, Arts and Humanities, Integrative Activities Life Curriculum, and Information Technology Education. New issues of curriculum : environmental education, gender education, human rights education, career development education and home economics education. The establishment of “Committee of School Curriculum Development” in schools. New Instructional Assessment : multiple assessment. The outline of “Grade 1-9 Curriculum Reform” in Taiwan

  • Five principles of curriculum revision which highlight : (a) the consistency and integrity of curriculum between primary and secondary schools; (b) learning areas and integrated instruction as the basis ; (3) basic competence as the core framework; (4) to plan the practice of English instruction in primary schools; (5) reducing the hours of instruction and construction of school-based curriculum.

  • Seven learning areas : Mathematics, Science and Technology, Social Studies, Health and Physical Education, Arts and Humanities, Integrative Activities Life Curriculum, and Information Technology Education.

  • New issues of curriculum : environmental education, gender education, human rights education, career development education and home economics education.

  • The establishment of “Committee of School Curriculum Development” in schools.

  • New instructional assessment : multiple assessment.


The trend of compulsory education reform in taiwan1

The trend of compulsory education reform in Taiwan

  • “Integrated curriculum” and “school-based curriculum” was highlighted in the new curriculum design to enhance the learning of life experiences and local culture.

  • “Action research” , “practioner-as-researcher” and “teachers’ professional portfolios” have been highlighted to enhance the self-empowerment of school teachers, and “school as a learning organization” had become a long term vision for school to adjust organizational culture and arrange the forms and contents of in-service teacher training programs.


The problems of compulsory education reform in taiwan

The problems of compulsory education reform in Taiwan

  • “Constructivism” had been emphasized in the instruction of mathematics but soon be strongly doubted and revised.

  • For teachers and parents, under waves of education reform, it has been a time period that many new idea and terms from abroad or governments flying in the air.

  • The financial difficulties of the LEA which cannot afford the implementation of education reform.


The anti voices of compulsory education reform

The anti-voices of compulsory education reform

* Education Reconstruction Front, (ERF, 2004) addressed four key opinions :

a. To reassess the ten years of education reform and end

the chaotic situation;

b. To make education policy transparent and respect the

views of experts in the educational field;

c. To devote more attention to disadvantaged students and

uphold social justice; and

d. To pursue excellence in education and make learning

more joyful.


Conclusion problems and challenge

Conclusion : Problems and challenge

  • Globalization is a critical one, but not the only one explanation of social change and education reform for different nations and local settings. Basil Bernstein’s framework provided comprehensive perspectives for us to explore the complication, contradictions and dynamics of education reform.

  • “What is pet idea that educational researchers and practitioners fear to lose in the wake of globalization? Judging from publications in educational research, it is the idea that we are abandoning our idiosyncratic conceptions of “good education” or “effective school reform’, and are gradually converging toward an “international model of education”. (Steiner-Khamsi 2004:3)


Conclusion problems and challenge1

Conclusion : Problems and challenge

  • How to reach a better balance among equity, efficiency and freedom during the process of education reform?

  • How can we really learn from the process of education reform, no matter in our own or other countries?


Conclusion problems and challenge2

Conclusion : Problems and challenge

  • Education reform in Taiwan has been a complex puzzle or a struggling process which was comprised with power, multiple voices and practices.

  • In all societies, education reform is really a long revolution or “piecemeal social engineering” as Karl Popper said in which requiring more reflections, efforts and actions from both the state and civil society.


Reference

Reference

Ball, S. J. (1994a) Education Reform: A critical and Post-structural Approach.

Buckingham: Open University Press.

Beck, U., Giddens, A. and Lash, S. (1994) Reflexive Modernization : Politics,

Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. London : Blackwell.

Beck, U. (2002) ‘The Cosmopolitian Society and its Enemies’, Theory, Culture

and Society, 19(1-2), pp.17-44.

Bernstein, B. (1990) The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse: Class, Codes

and Control, Vol. 4. London: Routledge.

Chou, C. I. (2003) The Great Experiment of Taiwanese Education(1987-2003).

Taiwan Taipei : Psychology Publisher. (in Chinese)

Durkheim, E (1977) The Evolution of Educational Thought: Lectures on the

Formation and Development of Secondary Education in France. Translated

by Peter Collins. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Habermas, J. (1973) Legitimation Crisis. Translated by Thomas McCarthy,

Cambridge: Polity.

Hall, S. (1988) ‘Brave New World’, Marxism Today, pp. 24-29.

Kenway, J. (1994) Economing Education: the Post-Fordist Directions. Victoria:

Deakin University Press.

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identity through democratisation and Taiwanisation.’ . Compare, 32(1).


Taiwan

Mok, K. H. (2003) ‘Similar trends, diverse agendas : higher education reforms’,

East Asia. Globalization, Societies and Education, 1(2).

Offe, C. (1984) Contradictions of the Welfare State. London: Hutchinson.

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Teachers College, Columbia University.

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Taiwan – A Sociological Exploration of Education Policy. Ph.D. Dissertation,

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Wang, H. L. (2005) Critical Pedagogy and Global Capitalism – the Reflections

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Website of MOE in Taiwan (in English) http://140.111.1.22/english/


Taiwan

(Ali Mountain, Chayi, Taiwan)

Education reform, mind reform.


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