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APA Format. Creating citations . Printed Book. Reference page: Levitan, I.B. & Kaczmarek, L.K. (1991). The Neuron: Cell and Molecular Biology (pp. 130-150). Oxford: Oxford University Press. In text: (Levitan & Kaczmarek, 1991) Levitan and Kaczmarek (1991) claim that…. From a database:

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Apa format

APA Format

Creating citations


Printed book
Printed Book

Reference page:

  • Levitan, I.B. & Kaczmarek, L.K. (1991). The Neuron: Cell and Molecular Biology (pp. 130-150). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    In text:

  • (Levitan & Kaczmarek, 1991)

  • Levitan and Kaczmarek (1991) claim that…


From a database:

10. Add CART mRNA expression in rat monkey and human brain: relevance to cocaine abuse. (eng; includes abstract) By Fagergren P, Physiology & Behavior [Physiol Behav], 2007 Sep 10; Vol. 92 (1-2), pp. 218-25; PMID: 17631364


  • Title:

    • Fibromuscular dysplasia in association with intrauterine cocaine exposure.Find More Like This

  • Author(s):

    • Thomas KR; Thomas SP; Hewan-Lowe KO; Pestaner JP

  • Author's Address:

    • Department of Pathology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University and Pitt County Memorial Hospital, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. [email protected]

  • Source:

    • Cardiovascular Pathology: The Official Journal Of The Society For Cardiovascular Pathology [Cardiovasc Pathol] 2007 Sep-Oct; Vol. 16 (5), pp. 313-6. Date of Electronic Publication: 2007 Feb 21.

  • Publication Type:

    • Case Reports; Journal Article

  • Language:

    • English

  • Journal Information:

    • Country of Publication: United States NLM ID: 9212060 Publication Model: Print-Electronic Cited Medium: Print ISSN: 1054-8807 (Print) NLM ISO Abbreviation: Cardiovasc. Pathol. Subsets: MEDLINE

  • MeSH Terms:

    • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*Cocaine-Related Disorders/*complicationsFibromuscular Dysplasia/*diagnosisAutopsy; Cocaine-Related Disorders/pathology; Coronary Vessels/pathology; Fatal Outcome; Female; Fibromuscular Dysplasia/etiology; Fibromuscular Dysplasia/pathology; Fibrosis; Humans; Infant; Male; Pregnancy; Renal Artery/pathology; Vertebral Artery/pathology

  • Abstract:

    • BACKGROUND: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an idiopathic disease of small- and medium-sized arteries, involving one or more vascular beds. Patients may present with a range of symptoms, which may not readily lead to a diagnosis of FMD. While maternal cocaineabuse during pregnancy has previously been associated with vascular alterations in the fetus, an association specifically with FMD has not previously been described. METHODS/RESULTS: In this case report, a 21-month-old male presented with a 3-week history of daily vomiting, with temporary improvement of symptoms, then relapse followed by loss of consciousness. His medical history was significant only for maternal cocaine use. Clinical evaluation revealed dilated cardiomyopathy, and a presumptive diagnosis of myocarditis was rendered. Respiratory arrest and death occurred 2 days after admission. Postmortem examination demonstrated intimal-type multivessel FMD, which was determined to be the cause of the clinical presentation. CONCLUSION: Without a postmortem examination, it is unlikely that a diagnosis of intimal fibroplasia, a rare variant of FMD (5% of cases), would have been made. This case thus illustrates the continuing utility of the classic postmortem examination. More intriguingly, the case suggests a possible relationship between in utero cocaine exposure and the development of fibromuscular dysplasia in the child.

  • Entry Date(s):

    • Date Created: 20070917 Date Completed: 20071025

  • Update Code:

    • 20071031

  • PMID:

    • 17868884

  • Persistent link to this record:

    • http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cmedm&AN=17868884&site=ehost-live

  • Database:

    • MEDLINE

  • View Links:

    • Check the Journal Locator for full textSearch the catalog at GALILEO to display locations from Georgia Libraries Journal List (GOLD)


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