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Supporting READING skills . Classwide Instruction. Models for selecting individual interventions. Individual Instruction. Background. School psychology professor at Utah State Teacher  school psychologist  researcher

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Supporting READING skills

Classwide Instruction

Models

for selecting individual interventions

Individual Instruction


Background
Background

  • School psychology professor at Utah State

  • Teacher school psychologist researcher

  • Strategies to strengthen our responses to learning and behavior problems.

  • Pleased to Be at This Conference


Providing systematic support

TIER 3:

Individualized Intervention

Monitor 1 time a week

~5%

TIER 2 :

Strategic/Supplemental

Monitor monthly

~15%

UNIVERSAL TIER 1:

Core Programs

Monitor 3 to 4 times/ year

~80% of Students


With progress monitoring cbm
With Progress monitoring ( CBM)

  • TRW=73

  • Omitted Words=11

  • Errors=5

  • CRW=58





Beat the buzzard routine get ready
Beat the Buzzard Routine Get READY

  • Quietly take out Demonstration Reading # 1

  • Write name on it.

  • Switch with a person next to you

  • Then look at me quietly.


Listen
LISTEN

I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day.

I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the

pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I

shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the

bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it

for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed

on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different

things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard. There were

many pretty flowers. There were also many birds in the trees. They all

sang pretty songs. I stopped to listen to them for a while. Their songs

were nice. When I finished playing in the woods, I went to the boy’s

house next door. We played fetch for a little while. Then we played ball.

Next we played with the frisbee. Then the boy had to go inside. I went

home. When I got there, my owner was home. He took me riding in the

back of his truck. We went very fast and the wind blew through my fur. I

had a great day!


Practice for 2 minutes
PRACTICE for 2 minutes

  • Partner 1 reads.

  • Partner 2 LISTEN AND SAY misread and stuck words until timer rings.

  • DO NOT WRITE.

  • Trade jobs


1 minute timed reading
1 minute TIMED READING

  • “GO” Partner 1 reads

  • Partner 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words

  • When timer rings, MARK last word read.

  • Trade jobs


Count and graph demonstration 2
COUNT AND GRAPHDemonstration 2


READING PARTNERS

STEP 1: GET READY

Take out pencil, folder, one story, and chart.

Go into reading partner assigned seating

Write your name on story and trade stories.

STEP 2: LISTEN

Follow along as the teacher reads the story

STEP 3: PRACTICE 2 minutes

PARTNER 1 reads.

PARTNER 2 LISTEN AND SAY misread and stuck words.

Trade jobs when timer rings

STEP 4: 1 minute TIMED READING

PARTNER 1 reads

PARTNER 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words

MARK last word read when timer rings.

Trade jobs

STEP 5: COUNT AND GRAPH

Count every word that is not circled.

Write the score on the story page and on your chart.



Beat the Buzzard

IDEAL TIME:

< 2 MINUTES


Organize

1 two pocket folder per reading partner

Copy 15 -30 different stories (numbered) for each student Put 2 sets of these stories per folder.

NAME: ________ DATE: _____

I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day. I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard.

STORY # 1

NAME: ________ DATE: _____

I am a puppy. My name is Jackson. Today, I had a very happy day. I saw all kinds of things, and had a lot of fun. First, I went swimming in the pond in front of my house. I swam with all of the fish. I got very wet. I shook to dry off. When I was tired of swimming, I took a nap on the bank of the pond. When I woke up, I saw a bug flying by. I followed it for a while to see where it went. It flew all over my yard. Then it landed on a log. Next, I went into the woods to explore. I saw a lot of different things. I saw many plants that did not grow in my yard.

STORY # 1


Results

100% treatment integrity when giving teachers scripts, materials, a classroom training session, and weekly support.

97% of the students above benchmark before intervention also increased scores.


Response to class wide intervention
Response to Class-wide Intervention

DECISION RULES

When class median has reached mastery, are there children with scores below red line? YES

Given another week’s growth of their previous average growth score would not reach instructional range in one more week? YES

ACTION TO BE TAKEN: Participate in Performance/Skill Deficit Assessment.



TIER 2: Strategic/Supplemental

1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin)

2. Read Well (Sopris West)

3. Reading Mastery (SRA)

4. Early Reading Intervention (Scott Foresman)

5. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)

6. REWARDS (Sopris West)

7. Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)

8. Read Naturally

~5%

~15%

~80% of Students

http://www.fcrr.org


Tier 2 Monthly CBM DATA

Are 80% of the Tier 2 students responding?

YES  target those students who are not responding

NO  target program.


Matching intervention to student needs

TIER 3:

Individualized Intervention

~5%

TIER 2 :

Strategic/Supplemental

~15%

~80% of Students


Models for selecting an intervention

to match student needs

1. Target Skills


2. Common reasons

for poor performance

WON’T DO: Fluent skills but does not want to do it.

CAN’T DO: Inadequate skills to do it.

Not enough help to do it right (accuracy)

Not enough time doing it (fluency).

It is just too hard (instructional level).


3. Powerful Effective teaching

Before

Tell

model

Guided practice

After

Error correction

Feedback

reward

#1

Opportunity to respond


How to

How To….


Are you a won t do or can t do
Are you a Won’t do or Can’t do?

Demonstration reading # 1

Listen to your goal.


Are you a won t do or can t do1
Are you a Won’t do or Can’t do?

  • DO a 1 minute TIMED READING

    • Partner 1 reads for 1 minute

    • Partner 2 LISTEN and SAY and CIRCLE misread or stuck words

    • When timer rings, MARK last word read.

  • COUNT

  • Did you beat last score?


Performance/Skill Deficit Assessment

PURPOSE OF DATA?

To rule out lack of motivation as a factor

HOW?

Administer CBM probe that student performed poorly on during class assessment. This time give the student a chance to earn reward for improved score.

OUTCOME?

When student’s score falls above instructional grade level range, proceed to motivational intervention.

When student’s score falls below instructional, proceed to an instructional intervention.



Without incentive: 8 children

With incentive: 5 children


Assessing READING Level

Fuchs rule of thumb:

If student reads 10-50 words correct in 1 minute but with less than 85-90% accuracy, move to next lower level

  • 3rd grade

  • Words

2nd grade

25 words

10 errors

1st grade

39 words

1 errors


  • Start at grade level passage.

  • Give three 1-minute assessments on three different grade level stories.

  • Score words read correctly in one minute.

  • If middle score is not at instructional level, administer three 1-minute reading assessments on next lower grade level.


Cbm data can t do reason
CBM Data & Can’t Do Reason

  • PHONEMIC AWARENESS PROBLEM

    -READINGLEVEL AT 1st GRADE OR LOWER 

  • ACCURACY PROBLEM

    • SLOW AND > 4 ERRORS

  • FLUENCY PROBLEM

    • -SLOW AND < 4 ERRORS

  • VOCABULARY PROBLEM

    • LOW COMPREHENSION AND MANY CIRCLED UNKNOWN WORDS

  • COMPREHENSION PROBLEM

    • FLUENT BUT FEW QUESTIONS ANSWERED CORRECTLY, POOR RETELL


  • Keep it simple selecting a few good interventions
    Keep it Simple Selecting a Few Good Interventions


    • A FEW PROVEN OPTIONS

    • (skills + reason why + effective teaching)

    • Accuracy  Listening Passage Preview + Phase Drill. Improve reading accuracy through modeling and error correction

    • Fluency Repeated Readings. Four repeated reading trials to increase fluency with increased practice opportunities

    • Vocabulary  Key Words. Help students to comprehend unknown vocabulary words through presentation and discussion of words definition and usage

    Comprehension  Comprehension training (information, summarize, inference, prediction) with fluency


    Reading interventions

    READING INTERVENTIONS

    BASED ON

    1. Skill TARGET

    2. Can’t DO

    3. Effective Teaching STEPS


    1 accuracy slow and 6 errors listening preview phase drill
    1. Accuracy (Slow and > 6 errors) Listening Preview + Phase Drill

    STEP 1: LISTEN

    Follow along as the teacher reads the story

    STEP 2: PRACTICE

    Have the student read the passage aloud while you underline errors (skips, mispronounces, hesitates 3 sec) on your copy. Supply the words missed.

    STEP 3: DRILL ERROR CORRECTION.

    Show the student the underlined words. Say the word and have the student read each sentence containing the error word three times.

    STEP 4: 1 minute TIMED READING

    STEP 5: COUNT AND RECORD


    Accuracy demonstration reading 4 model listen
    Accuracy Demonstration READING # 4 MODEL & LISTEN


    Guided practice
    GUIDED practice

    I see a boy and a girl. They come by

    day after day. The girl can eat a lot.

    She is little. The boy is big. He does

    not talk to the girl. He plays with his

    dog. I like his dog. The dog is very big.

    The

    3-sec

    3-sec

    pats


    Error correction
    ERROR Correction

    I see a boy and a girl. They come by

    day after day. The girl can eat a lot.

    She is little. The boy is big. He does

    not talk to the girl. He plays with his

    dog. I like his dog. The dog is very big.

    The

    3-sec

    3-sec

    pats


    Independent practice 1 minute timing
    INDEPENDENT PRACTICE 1 minute timing

    Demonstration READING # 2


    Immediate feedback
    IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK

    Graph

    My best score or goal is: _______

    My score on the timed test is: ________

    Did I beat my score? _____


    Weekly Progress Monitoring

    Individually-administered

    Materials:

    Copy of the school-wide reading passage and

    Copy of Screening scores

    “Treasure chest”

    Administer and score a 1-minute timed reading.

    Provide a reward if child score on this reading

    exceeds the screening score.


    Rationale

    Why the same probe?

    Eliminates probe variability

    Increases efficiency (1 probe verses 3 “cold” probes)

    Poor readers who struggle on all reading are identified.

    When students advance on 1 probe assessment, may monitor with 3 probes and take median score to see who should continue intervention another week.



    2 fluency slow but 4 errors repeated readings
    2. Fluency (Slow but < 4 errors) Repeated Readings

    STEP 1: GET READY

    STEP 2: PRACTICE 3 TIMES

    Teacher starts a timer and tells student to read passage

    Student reads from one passage.

    Teacher LISTENS and SAYS misread or stuck words

    At the end of the passage, tell the student the time it took to read the passage. Do this 3 times.

    STEP 3: 1 minute TIMED READING

     STEP 4: COUNT AND RECORD


    Demo

    1

    2

    3

    1 min timing

    Jeff’s mom is having a baby. Jeff is very happy. He will have a new brother or sister. He does not know whether the baby will be a boy or a girl. He will be happy with a new little brother or sister. He will help the baby learn new things. He will teach the baby how to crawl, and then how to walk. He will help teach the baby how to talk. When the baby gets older, he will play with the baby. If he gets a little brother, the baby will be named James. When he is old enough, he will teach the baby how to play tag and football. He will ride bikes with the baby.


    Same routine
    Same routine

    • Peers and/or adult tutor

    • Daily for 15 minutes

    • Weekly CBM monitoring


    3 vocabulary and fluency problem key words
    3. Vocabulary and Fluency problemKey Words

    STEP 1: IDENTIFY KEY WORDS

    Student circles any word that looks hard to read or understand.

    STEP 2: LISTEN. Student follows along on one copy as teacher reads.

    STEP 3: GUIDED PRACTICE. Student reads with teacher help.

    STEP 4: PRACTICE KEY WORDS

    Write the first 5 circled words on erase board. (or select words that were errors during practice or important words for story).

    Read the five words to the student and student repeats words.

    Define the words (verbal explanation, gestures and/or modeling).

    Use the word in a sentence.

    STEP 5: 1 minute TIMED READING

    STEP 6: COUNT AND RECORD



    fresh

    silver

    prepare

    brick

    decide


    4 comprehension
    4. Comprehension

    STEP 1: PRIOR TO READING

    Review a list of 6 to 10 questions that is to be completed. Identify if the question is about material that will be right there in the reading material, implied from material in the text that needs to be searched and thought about, or require you to predict or infer something after reading the material.

    Preview by scanning material and search for clues about what the reading is about, what you may already know about the material.


    Comprehension
    Comprehension

    STEP 2: READ PASSAGE OUT LOUD with teacher help.

    STEP 3: AFTER READING

    Turn the reading passage over.

    Without looking at the passage, answer the questions.

    Check your answer with the teacher

    Count the number of questions you got right. Write score on chart.


    Comprehension1
    Comprehension

    Option after reading for vocabulary practice:


    Comprehension2
    Comprehension

    Option after reading for main idea concept:

    Write a “gist” sentence about the main idea in 10 or less words.

    __________________________________________________

    Write 2-3 important facts, ideas, or supporting details.

    • _______________________________________________

    • _______________________________________________


    Phonics
    Phonics

    • Programs to practice using phonic skill

      • Basic Skill Builders program (Beck, Conrad, & Anderson, 1995) -practice sheets that are systematically sequenced for teaching brief units of reading skills.

      • www.starfall.com Free

      • http://www.funnix.com/ (direct instruction)

      • Read, Write and Type

        http://www.talkingfingers.com/readwritetype/RWT-learning-system.html

      • www.Headsprout.com(direct instruction)


    Keep it simple which few good interventions will you select
    Keep it Simple Which Few Good Interventions will you select?


    • TEAM Support Planning

    • 1. Match an intervention to the problem

    • 2. Prepare materials and train.

    • 3. Set up a routine. Set a daily 10 - 15 minute intervention routine 4 to 5 days a week at a set location.

    • 4. Monitor using a weekly CBM routine


    Contact information
    Contact information

    Donna Gilbertson, PhD

    Utah State University

    School Psychology Program

    [email protected]


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