The old world transformed
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The Old World Transformed. HIST 1004 1/9/13. Why now?. Scholasticism. Focused on logical reconciliation of ancient authorities. Greek philosophers (and their Muslim commentaries) and Christianity System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal.

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The Old World Transformed

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The Old World Transformed

HIST 1004

1/9/13


Why now?


Scholasticism

  • Focused on logical

    reconciliation of ancient

    authorities.

  • Greek philosophers

    (and their Muslim

    commentaries) and

    Christianity

  • System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal


Humanism

  • Progressive thought with

    a focus on reason and logic.

  • Cultural and educational

    reform during the

    Renaissance.

  • Pull general understanding

    with intent of improving the

    individual.

  • Critical of Church hierarchy

    and blind tradition.


The Printing Revolution

What’s so important about the development of

printing?


Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468)

  • German goldsmith and printer

  • 1439: Invents the first moveable type print and the first printing press


From Gutenberg Bible to…

  • 1455: Gutenberg 42-line Bible

  • Costs approx. 3 years salary for average clerk

  • Type setting takes

    ½ a day per page

  • Hand copying

    takes one scribe a

    year to produce a

    Bible


Martin Luther’s 95 Theses to…

  • 1517: Luther’s 95 Theses

  • 1519: 300,000 printed copies across Europe

  • Luther produces

    broad-sheets

    specifically for

    mass market

  • Ironically,

    Gutenberg

    got his start

    printing

    indulgences


To Newspapers…

  • 1605: Relation aller

    Fürnemmen und

    gedenckwürdigen

    Historien

  • World’s first modern

    newspaper


Was Gutenberg the First?

  • 1040: Woodblock moveable

    type in China

  • Still expensive due to

    thousands of necessary

    characters…

    Why not in the Islamic world?


Printing and Social Change

  • Growing urban populations with disposable income, bourgeoisie…

  • Leads to spread of literacy…

  • Introduction of cheap production methods (printing press)…

  • Leads to rapid spread

    of ideas…

  • Allows ideas to gain

    hold before

    traditional authorities

    could block them…


Christianity before Martin Luther

  • Before 1519: Papacy

    primary authority in Latin

    Christianity

  • Long history of conflicts

    between the papacy and

    secular rulers as well as

    church reformers

  • Investiture Controversy

    (11th century)

  • Crusades (11th-13th centuries)

Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) by Raphael


Indulgences

  • Forgiveness of the penance due for past sins

  • Purchased from the church either for money or for service (such as crusading)

  • Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521): overseer of construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome


Martin Luther (1483-1546)

  • German monk

  • 1508: Professor of

    Theology at the

    University of Wittenberg

  • 1517: Luther begins

    protesting the sale

    of indulgences on

    theological grounds

  • 95 Theses on the

    Power and Efficiency of

    Indulgences


The Protestant Reformation

  • Martin Luther seen as a direct challenge to papal authority.

  • 1519: Accused of disagreeing with church doctrine

  • 1521: Diet of Worms: Luther excommunicated

    by Pope Leo X

    and declared an

    outlaw by Holy

    Roman Emperor

    Charles V


“Unless I am convicted by the testimony of Scripture or by evident reason - for I trust neither in popes nor in councils alone, since it is obvious that they have often erred and contradicted themselves - I am convicted by the Scripture which I have mentioned and my conscience is captive by the Word of God. Therefore I cannot and will not recant, since it is difficult, unprofitable and dangerous indeed to do anything against one's conscience. God help me. Amen."

Martin Luther, 1521


Huldrych Zwingli 1484-1531

  • Swiss reformer, Chaplain to mercenaries in his early years.

  • Influenced by Erasmus and Humanist thought. Also influence by Luther but disputed some of his theology.

  • Began to preach openly against church doctrines and corruption in Zurich ~ 1518-1519


The Marburg Colloquy of 1529

August Noack - 1867


John Calvin 1509-1564

  • Studied law in Paris (Humanist)

  • Read works of Luther in French

  • No formal religious training

  • Second generation reformer

  • Defended the doctrine of Predestination which was controversial because it took almost all power out of the hierarchy of the church.


…Meanwhile, back in Rome

  • By about 1550, populations across Europe had mostly recovered from the devastating effects of the plague.

  • Reformed ideas begin to spread more quickly as Humanist thought became more prevalent in theology.

  • How does the Catholic Church React to these protesters and their “Protestant Reformation”?


Counter Reformation

  • The Catholic Reformation – direct response to the Protestant Reformation.

  • Reform from within

  • Addressed corruption, theological issues, and political issues such as granting Indulgences.

Pope Paul III (p. 1534-1549)


Council of Trent 1545 - 1563

  • Ecumenical council that met for 18 years

  • Met under three popes who were mostly reform minded

  • Meeting in Trent was a political compromise

  • Protestant Reformation forced the Roman Catholic Church to define its stance on salvation and the sacraments


Success of the Catholic Reformation

  • In 1545, roughly half of Europe

    was protestant. One hundred years

    later, only just under one quarter of

    the population were.

  • The death of Martin Luther in 1562

    slowed Protestant reform and helped

    Catholic reform gain momentum.

  • Success of organizations such as the

    Jesuits (Society of Jesus) that made

    education a priority which helped to spread

    their theology more effectively.


…Meanwhile, back in England

  • By the 1530s, reformed theology was becoming popular in England.

  • Not just among scholars and theologians. Thanks to Guttenberg and translations in the vernacular, ideas were spreading among all classes.

  • The “King’s Great Matter” provided the opportunity for the Protestant movement to gain legitimacy in England.


The King’s Great Matter 1525-1533

  • Henry VIII (1491-1547) - married to

    Catherine of Aragon.

  • 1525 becomes infatuated with

    Anne Boleyn

  • 1527 – seeks an annulment so he

    could marry Anne Boleyn

  • Looked to scripture to justify the

    annulment because of a lack of children.

  • Unfortunately for Henry, Catherine’s

    nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman

    Emperor.

  • Charles V Sacked Rome in 1527 and the

    Pope essentially his political prisoner.


Church of England

  • Several stages to the

    split with Rome. Mostly in

    Parliament and theological

    maneuvers.

  • By 1534 Parliament enacts the

    Act of Supremacy which declares

    Henry VIII: “…the only Supreme Head

    in Earth of the Church of England”

  • Draws on the idea of “Divine

    Right of Kings”

  • Thomas Cranmer appointed

    Archbishopof Canterbury

  • Book of Common Prayer 1549


“Wars of Religion”

  • Enforcement of religious preferences of kings

  • Spain and Portugal defend Catholicism

    • Inquistion against Protestants

  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

    • Kings accept majority Catholicism but give religious freedom to the Protestants (until 1598)

  • Anglican Church (1533)

    • Puritans want to remove

      all traces of Catholicism

    • Oliver Cromwell (r. 1653-

      1658) and the English Civil War

      (1642-1649)

    • “No bishops, no king”

      James I (of King James Bible

      fame)


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