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The Old World Transformed. HIST 1004 1/9/13. Why now?. Scholasticism. Focused on logical reconciliation of ancient authorities. Greek philosophers (and their Muslim commentaries) and Christianity System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal.

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scholasticism
Scholasticism
  • Focused on logical

reconciliation of ancient

authorities.

  • Greek philosophers

(and their Muslim

commentaries) and

Christianity

  • System of disputation – question -> response -> counter proposal -> rebuttal
humanism
Humanism
  • Progressive thought with

a focus on reason and logic.

  • Cultural and educational

reform during the

Renaissance.

  • Pull general understanding

with intent of improving the

individual.

  • Critical of Church hierarchy

and blind tradition.

the printing revolution
The Printing Revolution

What’s so important about the development of

printing?

johannes gutenberg 1398 1468
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468)
  • German goldsmith and printer
  • 1439: Invents the first moveable type print and the first printing press
from gutenberg bible to
From Gutenberg Bible to…
  • 1455: Gutenberg 42-line Bible
  • Costs approx. 3 years salary for average clerk
  • Type setting takes

½ a day per page

  • Hand copying

takes one scribe a

year to produce a

Bible

martin luther s 95 theses to
Martin Luther’s 95 Theses to…
  • 1517: Luther’s 95 Theses
  • 1519: 300,000 printed copies across Europe
  • Luther produces

broad-sheets

specifically for

mass market

  • Ironically,

Gutenberg

got his start

printing

indulgences

to newspapers
To Newspapers…
  • 1605: Relation aller

Fürnemmen und

gedenckwürdigen

Historien

  • World’s first modern

newspaper

was gutenberg the first
Was Gutenberg the First?
  • 1040: Woodblock moveable

type in China

  • Still expensive due to

thousands of necessary

characters…

Why not in the Islamic world?

printing and social change
Printing and Social Change
  • Growing urban populations with disposable income, bourgeoisie…
  • Leads to spread of literacy…
  • Introduction of cheap production methods (printing press)…
  • Leads to rapid spread

of ideas…

  • Allows ideas to gain

hold before

traditional authorities

could block them…

christianity before martin luther
Christianity before Martin Luther
  • Before 1519: Papacy

primary authority in Latin

Christianity

  • Long history of conflicts

between the papacy and

secular rulers as well as

church reformers

  • Investiture Controversy

(11th century)

  • Crusades (11th-13th centuries)

Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) by Raphael

indulgences
Indulgences
  • Forgiveness of the penance due for past sins
  • Purchased from the church either for money or for service (such as crusading)
  • Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521): overseer of construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
martin luther 1483 1546
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • German monk
  • 1508: Professor of

Theology at the

University of Wittenberg

  • 1517: Luther begins

protesting the sale

of indulgences on

theological grounds

  • 95 Theses on the

Power and Efficiency of

Indulgences

the protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation
  • Martin Luther seen as a direct challenge to papal authority.
  • 1519: Accused of disagreeing with church doctrine
  • 1521: Diet of Worms: Luther excommunicated

by Pope Leo X

and declared an

outlaw by Holy

Roman Emperor

Charles V

slide16

“Unless I am convicted by the testimony of Scripture or by evident reason - for I trust neither in popes nor in councils alone, since it is obvious that they have often erred and contradicted themselves - I am convicted by the Scripture which I have mentioned and my conscience is captive by the Word of God. Therefore I cannot and will not recant, since it is difficult, unprofitable and dangerous indeed to do anything against one\'s conscience. God help me. Amen."

Martin Luther, 1521

huldrych zwingli 1484 1531
Huldrych Zwingli 1484-1531
  • Swiss reformer, Chaplain to mercenaries in his early years.
  • Influenced by Erasmus and Humanist thought. Also influence by Luther but disputed some of his theology.
  • Began to preach openly against church doctrines and corruption in Zurich ~ 1518-1519
the marburg colloquy of 1529
The Marburg Colloquy of 1529

August Noack - 1867

john calvin 1509 1564
John Calvin 1509-1564
  • Studied law in Paris (Humanist)
  • Read works of Luther in French
  • No formal religious training
  • Second generation reformer
  • Defended the doctrine of Predestination which was controversial because it took almost all power out of the hierarchy of the church.
meanwhile back in rome
…Meanwhile, back in Rome
  • By about 1550, populations across Europe had mostly recovered from the devastating effects of the plague.
  • Reformed ideas begin to spread more quickly as Humanist thought became more prevalent in theology.
  • How does the Catholic Church React to these protesters and their “Protestant Reformation”?
counter reformation
Counter Reformation
  • The Catholic Reformation – direct response to the Protestant Reformation.
  • Reform from within
  • Addressed corruption, theological issues, and political issues such as granting Indulgences.

Pope Paul III (p. 1534-1549)

council of trent 1545 1563
Council of Trent 1545 - 1563
  • Ecumenical council that met for 18 years
  • Met under three popes who were mostly reform minded
  • Meeting in Trent was a political compromise
  • Protestant Reformation forced the Roman Catholic Church to define its stance on salvation and the sacraments
success of the catholic reformation
Success of the Catholic Reformation
  • In 1545, roughly half of Europe

was protestant. One hundred years

later, only just under one quarter of

the population were.

  • The death of Martin Luther in 1562

slowed Protestant reform and helped

Catholic reform gain momentum.

  • Success of organizations such as the

Jesuits (Society of Jesus) that made

education a priority which helped to spread

their theology more effectively.

meanwhile back in england
…Meanwhile, back in England
  • By the 1530s, reformed theology was becoming popular in England.
  • Not just among scholars and theologians. Thanks to Guttenberg and translations in the vernacular, ideas were spreading among all classes.
  • The “King’s Great Matter” provided the opportunity for the Protestant movement to gain legitimacy in England.
the king s great matter 1525 1533
The King’s Great Matter 1525-1533
  • Henry VIII (1491-1547) - married to

Catherine of Aragon.

  • 1525 becomes infatuated with

Anne Boleyn

  • 1527 – seeks an annulment so he

could marry Anne Boleyn

  • Looked to scripture to justify the

annulment because of a lack of children.

  • Unfortunately for Henry, Catherine’s

nephew was Charles V, the Holy Roman

Emperor.

  • Charles V Sacked Rome in 1527 and the

Pope essentially his political prisoner.

church of england
Church of England
  • Several stages to the

split with Rome. Mostly in

Parliament and theological

maneuvers.

  • By 1534 Parliament enacts the

Act of Supremacy which declares

Henry VIII: “…the only Supreme Head

in Earth of the Church of England”

  • Draws on the idea of “Divine

Right of Kings”

  • Thomas Cranmer appointed

Archbishopof Canterbury

  • Book of Common Prayer 1549
wars of religion
“Wars of Religion”
  • Enforcement of religious preferences of kings
  • Spain and Portugal defend Catholicism
    • Inquistion against Protestants
  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
    • Kings accept majority Catholicism but give religious freedom to the Protestants (until 1598)
  • Anglican Church (1533)
    • Puritans want to remove

all traces of Catholicism

    • Oliver Cromwell (r. 1653-

1658) and the English Civil War

(1642-1649)

    • “No bishops, no king”

James I (of King James Bible

fame)

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