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Naval Nuclear Power. MM1(SS) Ryan Reed Nuclear Field Coordinator NRD Michigan. POWER GENERATION BREAKDOWN. 55% COAL 22% NUCLEAR 10% NATURAL GAS 9% HYDRO 3% PETROL. 1% SOLAR, WIND, BIOMASS, GEOTHERMAL. What is nuclear power?.

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Naval nuclear power

Naval Nuclear Power

MM1(SS) Ryan Reed

Nuclear Field Coordinator

NRD Michigan


Power generation breakdown

POWER GENERATION BREAKDOWN

  • 55% COAL

  • 22% NUCLEAR

  • 10% NATURAL GAS

  • 9% HYDRO

  • 3% PETROL.

  • 1% SOLAR, WIND, BIOMASS, GEOTHERMAL


What is nuclear power

What is nuclear power?

Extracting usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions.


History

History

  • Fission experimentally achieved by Enrico Fermi in 1934 by bombarding uranium with neutrons.

  • First nuclear power plant used for civil purpose was launched in 1954

  • The Navy’s first nuclear powered ship USS Nautilus was put to sea in 1955


So why would the navy want to use nuclear power

So why would the Navy want to use Nuclear Power?

  • Efficiency

  • Zero emissions

  • Longevity


Energy equivalency

ENERGY EQUIVALENCY


Cons of fossil fuel sources

CONS OF FOSSIL FUEL SOURCES

  • COAL

  • NATURAL GAS

  • OIL


Pros cons of renewable sources

PROS & CONS OF RENEWABLE SOURCES

  • SOLAR

  • WIND

  • BIO-MASS

  • GEO-THERMAL


Coal vs nuclear power

Coal vs. Nuclear Power

  • How long can one pound of coal light one 100 watt light bulb, once all of its energy is converted to electricity?

  • Approximately 9 hours

  • How long can one pound of uranium light the same bulb?


3 000 years

3,000 YEARS!!!!!


Naval nuclear power

Nuclear power plants use a series of physical barriers to make sure radioactive material cannot escape. In today’s water-cooled reactors, the first barrier is the fuel itself: the solid ceramic uranium pellets.


Naval nuclear power

The pellets are sealed in zirconium rods.


Why do you think the navy takes advantage of this technology

Why do you think the Navy takes advantage of this technology?

  • Prior to this, submarines relied on diesel generators to charge the ships batteries. This limited the submarine submergence time to a maximum of 12 hours before it would have to resurface and recharge. Today, submarines have the ability to stay submerged and perform several types of missions without being detected for up to 90 days (limited on food and supplies)!!


Longevity

Longevity

  • Navy’s nuclear ships can run for decades without refueling.

  • Allowing our submarines to remain submerged, and aircraft carriers to stay on station without having to return to port to refuel.


Why can an atom produce so much energy

Why can an atom produce so much energy?

  • First, consider the type of reaction that is taking place?

  • Second, what are the individual particles that make-up the atom?

  • Which particles are in the nucleus and what electrical charge do they possess?

  • What holds the nucleus together?


Nuclear physics nuclear strongforce

Nuclear Physics“Nuclear Strongforce”

  • The nucleus always has a smaller total mass than the sum of its component masses.

  • That is if you weighed the protons and neutrons individually they would weigh a total of 235 atomic mass units.

  • However, when grouped to form the nucleus some of the mass is converted to energy (nuclear strongforce) holding it together which makes it weigh less. This is derived from: E = mc2


Nuclear physics fission

Nuclear Physics“Fission”

What causes fission to occur?


Nuclear physics fission1

Nuclear Physics“Fission”

  • Addition of a neutron to the nucleus, causes it to become unstable. In order for the nucleus to reach stability again, it fissions (breaks apart) releasing the energy (nuclear strongforce) in the form heat.

  • Also, 2 to 3 more neutrons are released.


Basic fission reaction

*

235

1

236

134

100

1

1

Xe

U

U

Sr

E

+

n

+

+

n

+

n

+

92

0

92

54

38

0

0

Basic fission reaction


Nuclear physics fission2

Nuclear Physics“Fission”

  • Are the neutrons “born” from fission important?

  • Yes!

  • They go on to cause more fissions to keep the chain reaction continuing.


Naval nuclear power

Xenon

Xenon

Xenon

Strontium

Strontium

Strontium

Basic Nuclear Reaction (Fission)

U 235

U 235

U 235

= Neutron

= energy released (heat)

= Fission Products


Nuclear physics

Nuclear Physics

  • If one neutron produces one fission and three neutrons are “born” and they cause three fissions to occur how many do we having at the beginning of the third generation?

  • 9

  • Fourth and so on?

  • 27, 81, 243, 729, 2187

  • How is the reactor responding to this increase in neutron population per generation?

  • It is increasing at an exponential rate, resulting in the reactor to operate near or above its designed limits.


Nuclear physics1

Nuclear Physics

  • To control the neutron population within the reactor, operators use control rods which are made of non-fissionable materials such as Boron or Hafnium. These elements are “neutron sponges” they can absorb neutrons, to prevent them from interacting with Uranium.

  • The control rods are remotely controlled and can be raised and lowered to control the neutron population within the reactor.

  • At steady state levels of operation, one neutron causes a fission, an only 1 of 3 born from fission goes onto to cause another fission. This is called “criticality”.


Naval nuclear power

CONTROL ROD

THREADED SHAFT FOR DRIVE MOTOR

CONTROL RODS ARE MADE OF A MATERIAL

WITH A VERY HIGH PROBABILITY OF

NEUTRON ABSORPTION, USUALLY BORON

OR HAFNIUM. THIS ALLOWS THE CONTROL

RODS TO BE RAISED AND LOWERED IN THE

REACTOR CORE TO CONTROL THE RATE AT

WHICH FISSION OF U-235 OCCURS. THE RODS

ARE CONTROLLED AS A GROUP BY MOTORS

AND ELECTRONICS FROM A LOCATION AWAY

FROM THE REACTOR.

CONTROL ROD


Naval nuclear power

TOP VIEW OF REACTOR CORE WITH CONTROL

RODS AND FUEL CELLS

IN

OUT

CRDM

CONTROL ROD

FUEL CELL


How do we do it

How do we do it???


Naval nuclear power

The Nuclear Reactor

  • Made of Corrosion Resistant Stainless Steel

  • Built to withstand high temperature and pressure

  • Initial Containment for radioactive material


Naval nuclear power

Steam produced

Heat

We then convert the heat from the fission reaction to steam in a steam generator. The primary coolant passes through tubes which have cooler secondary coolant sprayed on them. The secondary coolant flashes to high pressure steam.


Naval nuclear power

Steam

Generator

Turbine

The steam then flows down a pipe where it will turn generators to generate electricity and on ships to turbines. The steam will spin the turbines at a high rate of speed. This will be reduced by reduction gears to a useful speed to turn the shaft and ultimately the screw on a ship or submarine to propel the vessel through the water.


Completing the cycle

Completing the Cycle

  • The steam, which is now low pressure and exhausted of its’ energy, is condensed back to secondary coolant.

  • This secondary coolant is pumped back into the steam generator to be used again.

  • The primary coolant, after transferring its’ energy, is pumped back through the core repeating the cycle.


Naval nuclear power

NUCLEAR REACTOR OPERATION

STEAM

SECONDARY

SHIELD

TURBINE

SW OUT

CONDENSER

STEAM

GENERATOR

REACTOR

SW IN

PRIMARY SHIELD

COOLANT PUMP

CONDENSATE PUMP

REACTOR COMPARTMENT


Common concerns regarding nuclear energy

Common concerns regarding nuclear energy

  • Explosions

  • Meltdowns

  • Radiation

  • Toxic Waste

  • Mutations


Types of radiation

TYPES OF RADIATION

GAMMA RAYS - no electric charge,

most penetrating.

ALPHA PARTICLES - identical to a

Helium-4 atom, ingestion hazard.

BETA PARTICLES - electron with a

- or + charge.

NEUTRON - no electric charge.


Biological effects

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

  • KILL OR DESTROY CELLS.

  • GENETIC DEFECTS.

  • CANCER

  • NOTHING.


Radiation limits exposure

RADIATION LIMITS & EXPOSURE

GOVERNMENT NAVY

5,000mrem/yr 500mrem/yr

Average exposure working with nuclear power: 150mrem/yr

Average exposure received in the United States: 360mrem/yr

Medical X-rays: 60mrem/dose

Smokers: 1300mrem/yr


Health effects of radiation exposure

HEALTH EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE

  • 0-25 Rem None detectable

  • 25-100 Rem Minor blood changes, nausea, fatigue

  • 100-200 RemDisability, blood changes, vomiting. Several weeks to recover

  • 200-600 RemBlood changes, internal hemorrhaging, disability, vomiting. 50% die w/o treatment

  • 600-1000 RemAccelerated symptoms. Death may occur w/in 2 weeks, with delayed mortality of 100% w/omedical treatment

  • 1000-2000 Rem100% fatality w/o medical treatment

  • 1 Rem = 1000mRem`


Chernobyl an accident waiting to happen

CHERNOBYL: AN ACCIDENT WAITING TO HAPPEN

  • Boiling Water Reactor

    • Runaway Reactor => 7% to 50% in 3 sec

  • Slow Control Rods

  • Loss of coolant due to operator error

  • Graphite Moderator vice water

  • No Containment


Recent nuclear accidents

RECENT NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

  • CHERNOBYL-1986

  • TECHNICIANS REMOVE ALL 30 CONTROL RODS, LOSE CONTROL OF ENERGY

  • ATTEMPT TO SHUT DOWN REACTOR, ONLY INSERT 6 CONTROL RODS

  • RAPID INCREASE OF HEAT CAUSES COOLANT TO EXPLODE INTO STEAM, RUPTURING REACTOR VESSEL

  • CONTAIMENT BUILDING RUPTURES RELEASING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL


Chernobyl an accident waiting to happen1

CHERNOBYL: AN ACCIDENT WAITING TO HAPPEN


Recent nuclear accidents1

RECENT NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

  • THREE MILE ISLAND- 1979

  • WORKERS DISABLE CONTROL AIR SYSTEM

  • SECONDARY SYSTEM SHUTS DOWN, LOSS OF WATER IN STEAM GENERATORS

  • REACTOR SCRAMS, PRIMARY SYSTEM OVERHEATS, RELIEF VALVE GETS STUCK OPEN

  • LOSS OF COOLANT IN PRIMARY SYSTEM, CORE IS UNCOVERED

  • FUEL RODS BREAK DOWN RELEASING HYDROGEN INTO REACTOR VESSEL AND BLDG

  • GASES RELEASED TO ATMOSPHERE TO PREVENT HYDROGEN EXPLOSION


Three mile island

Three Mile Island

  • Maintenance stopped feedwater to Steam Generators => Rx automatically shutdown

  • Emergency Core Cooling System malfunction

  • Leaking pressure relief valve

  • Partial Meltdown

  • Almost fully contained

  • Turned the tide on public sentiment for Nuclear Power


Public radiation exposure from three mile island

Public Radiation Exposure From Three Mile Island

  • Highest whole body dose to any one individual <100 millirems

  • Dose rate within a 10-mile radius <1.5 mr

  • Dose rate within a 50-mile radius <.5 mr


Radioactive decay particles

Radioactive Decay Particles

  • a = alpha particle => Helium nucleus with a penetrating power in air of 1-3 cm. Shielded by paper, clothing, dead skin cells.

  • b- = Beta minus => High energy electron with a penetrating power of 17-24cm. Shielded by thick clothing, aluminum foil.

  • g= gamma => photon with an infinite penetrating power, shielded by lead

  • n = neutron => nucleic particle with a high penetrating power, shielding by water


The cookie question if you had an alpha a beta a gamma and a neutron cookie which would you

throw away

put in your pocket

eat

hold in your hand

a Alpha particle

b- Beta particle

g gamma

n neutron

The Cookie Question:If you had an alpha, a beta, a gamma, and a neutron cookie, which would you:


Cookie question answer

Cookie Question Answer:

  • Alpha particle: Hold in your hand because it is shielded by dead skin cells.

  • Beta particle: Put in your pocket because it is shielded by thick clothing.

  • Gamma: Eat, because one gamma is very small, and the chances are low that it will even contact any part of your body.

  • Neutron: Throw away because we use water to either moderate or shield neutrons, and your body is made of 70% water.


Naval nuclear power

NNPTC

CHARLESTON, SC


Training pipeline

Training Pipeline

  • Upon completion of basic training: “A” school for 13-26 weeks depending on rate.

  • Nuclear Power school for 6 months.

  • Naval Nuclear Prototype training for 6 months in either SC or NY.


Benefits

BENEFITS

  • Entry level bonus- $12,000 cash

  • Advanced promotion to E-3 upon graduation from basic training

  • Advancement to E-4 within 6-9 months (More $$$)

  • College level credit - ~80 credits worth

  • Re-enlistment bonus- up to $120,000, and first time advancement to E-5 (MORE $$$)

  • Technical experience, leadership skills, a security clearance level of “Secret”, and Highly specialized training

  • Great opportunities for Officer selection


Any questions

Any Questions???

  • MM1(SS) Ryan Reed

  • Phone: 269-270-7314

  • Email: [email protected]


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