Online instructional strategies that affect learner motivation
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Online Instructional Strategies that Affect Learner Motivation. Albert L. Ingram, Ph.D. Ruth Watson, Ph.D. Kent State University. Online Learning. Increasing agreement on the importance of active and interactive strategies for learning Student discussions Cooperative learning

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Online Instructional Strategies that Affect Learner Motivation

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Online Instructional Strategies that Affect Learner Motivation

Albert L. Ingram, Ph.D.

Ruth Watson, Ph.D.

Kent State University


Online Learning

  • Increasing agreement on the importance of active and interactive strategies for learning

    • Student discussions

    • Cooperative learning

    • Collaborative learning


What about Motivation?

  • What makes students want to continue to learn?

  • Special problems with online motivation

    • How does instructor know?

    • What can instructor do to affect motivation?


Do instructional strategies affect motivation?

  • Focus on strategies emphasizing interactions among students

  • Four strategies

    • Small group discussions

    • Role playing

    • Brainstorming

    • Interviewing


Small Group Discussions

  • Build on group experiences

  • Formulate ideas

  • Build relationships

  • Students take responsibility for own learning


Role Playing

  • Real world problems

  • Small groups

  • Perspective-taking

  • Online role playing reduces self-consciousness, anxiety


Brainstorming

  • Creative problem-solving

  • Small groups

  • Idea generation

  • Suspension of criticism

  • Analysis comes later


Interviewing

  • Bring people together

  • Cultivate relationships

  • Independent activity for students

  • Learners must develop and ask questions


Learning Styles

  • Assumption that independent learners do best in online learning

  • Spread of online learning means that people with variety of styles will be in online courses

  • How do we teach styles other than independent?

  • How are different styles motivated?


Grasha’sSocial Learning Styles

  • Independent

  • Dependent

  • Competitive

  • Collaborative

  • Avoidant

  • Participant


Styles and Motivation

  • Competitive motivated by teacher-centered activity

  • Collaborative prefers working in small groups and may have difficulty working alone

  • Avoidant does not like teacher-student interaction

  • Participant enjoys discussing with others; may place the needs of others first

  • Dependent prefers teacher-centered instruction, do only what is required, and want clear instructions

  • Independent prefers to learn what is important to them


Measuring Motivation

  • Keller’s ARCS model

    • Attention

    • Relevance

    • Confidence

    • Satisfaction

  • Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS)


Methods

  • Participants

    • 6 instructors

    • N=64 students

  • Procedure

    • GRSLSS

    • Baseline IMMS

    • Participate in learning activity

    • IMMS


Methods

  • Interaction style X Strategy

  • Motivation is dependent variable

  • Interviewing (n=9), role play (n=25), brainstorming (n=31), small group (n=48)


Hypothesized Changes in Motivation Following Different Online Instructional Strategies


Data

  • Self-test into Social Learning Style categories

    • four categories represented: Collaborative, Dependent, independent, Participant

  • Different instructors used different strategies


Baseline Motivation - Total and Subscales


Styles - Motivation Baseline

  • Collaborative -- lowest baseline confidence score

  • Participant learners -- highest total baseline motivation score and highest scores for attention, relevance, and satisfaction

  • Dependent learners -- lowest total baseline motivation scores and lowest scores for attention, relevance, and satisfaction

  • Independent learners -- highest baseline confidence score


Effects of Strategies on Motivation


Effects of Styles

Total (ARCS) Results


Discussion - Styles

  • Most online learners are not independent

  • Collaborative learners motivated by all strategies

  • Participant learners motivated by all except interviewing


Discussion - Styles

  • Dependent learners motivated by small group discussions and interviews, not by role playing and brainstorming

  • Independent learners motivated by brainstorming, demotivated by small group discussions, unchanged by interviewing


Discussion - Strategies

  • Interactive strategies increase motivation

  • Interviewing showed most increase

    • Followed by brainstorming and small group discussions

  • Role playing lowered motivation overall

  • Results varied according to ARCS subscales


Discussion - Interactions

  • Many of the hypothesized interactions between style and strategy were confirmed, but not all

  • There were clearly many such interactions, however.


Limitations

  • Sample size: not enough individuals in all style categories

  • Teaching/learning strategies depended on implementation by independent teachers

  • Learners may test high in more than one category PLUS categories are not fixed

  • Activities may be compatible with different styles for different reasons


Implications

  • “Learner-centered” strategies and online learning are increasingly popular

  • Choosing good active learning strategies can lead to higher student motivation

  • Especially important for high-level goals and objectives

  • Explicit attention to motivation will help

  • Effects will vary for learning styles


Conclusions

  • Importance of studying motivation for learners of all social learning preferences

  • Majority of online learners may not be independent

  • Larger samples may find learners in all categories

  • More strategies can be studied


Conclusions

  • Multiple use of the GRSLSS instrument after each online instructional strategy

    • Which strategies help learners migrate from one category to another

    • Learning styles not fixed

    • We can improve online learning experience


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