E mbedding S ocial I nclusion in Universities . Adam Howard Colby College. Research Process. Phase 1: Library Research 36% of low-income students attend higher education institutions, compared to 88.3% of high-income students Research focus only on increasing enrollment, not retention
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Embedding Social Inclusion in Universities
Sonia Nieto (1996) defines cultural deficit perspectives as those that: “Hypothesize that some people are deficient in intelligence and/or achievement either because of genetic inferiority or because of cultural deprivation (because of their cultural background and/or because they have been deprived of cultural experiences and activities deemed by the majority to be indispensable for growth and development).”
Founded in 1813, it is the 12th-oldest independent liberal arts college in US
1,815 students; 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio
Ranks among the top 20 liberal arts colleges in the country
$59,110 per year comprehensive fees
39% of students on financial aid (therefore, 61% do not qualify for financial aid) and $25 million in aid awarded each year
11% first-generation students; 19% students of color; 11% international students (from over 70 countries)
First Year Student Retention: 94%
Overall Retention Rate: 91%
Latino 51%; African American 73%; [1st gen 42%]
The “liberal arts college experience” in the US is characterized by three main aspects that distinguish it from undergraduate experiences in other countries:
smaller size than universities, which usually means more individual attention is given to each student;
residential, which means students live and learn away from home, often for the first time, and learn to live well with others; and
a typically two-year exploration of the liberal arts or general knowledge before declaring a major.
Within the affluent, white culture of Colby, their outsider-within status had begun to take shape. While just starting to identify as a part of Colby, they also were beginning to realize that they would be apart from it.
Students saw classrooms, much more than social encounters, cultural events, or other out-of-classroom experiences, as important arenas in which genuine interaction around diversity occurred in a safe environment.
There are roughly 450 first-year students
To provide knowledge and skills that will enable students to interact effectively with others across multiple dimensions of difference.
Students Taking Action