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HIS 105 Chapter 1. The Birth of Civilization. Earth : approximately 6 billion years old Human-Like Creatures: appeared 3-5 million years ago in Africa Erect, Tool-Using Early Humans: spread over Africa, Europe, & Asia 1-2 million years ago Homo Sapiens: emerged some 200,000 years ago

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His 105 chapter 1

HIS 105Chapter 1

The Birth of Civilization


  • Earth : approximately 6 billion years old

  • Human-Like Creatures: appeared 3-5 million years ago in Africa

  • Erect, Tool-Using Early Humans: spread over Africa, Europe, & Asia 1-2 million years ago

  • Homo Sapiens: emerged some 200,000 years ago

  • Earliest Fully Modern Human Remains : date to about 90,000 years ago


  • Earliest Humans: hunter/gatherers/fishers

  • Agriculture began 8000 B.C.E.

    • Cultivated plants

    • Raised livestock

    • Made air-tight pottery for food storage

      Humans settled in small communities now that they could produce their own food.


Civilization characteristics
Civilization: Characteristics

  • Producers of food

  • Settled and more complex life

  • Increased harvests through use of irrigation

  • Towns and cities with impressive structures

  • Flourishing commerce

  • Developed writing to keep records and and inventories



Culture
Culture

  • Ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another

  • It includes:

    • Courtship practices

    • Child-rearing techniques

    • Material goods: Ex.- types of shelter & clothing

    • Ideas

    • Institutions

    • Beliefs

    • Language


Paleolithic age old stone
Paleolithic Age (Old Stone)

  • Dates from 1-2 million years ago to about 10,000 B.C.E.

  • Small groups of hunters, gatherers, & fishers - not producers of food

  • Used tools of stone and wood

  • Learned to make and use fire

  • Acquired language to pass on knowledge


  • Depended on and feared nature

  • Practiced religion and magic to help them with their fears

  • Sexual division of labor

    • Men hunted & fished

    • Women gathered plants to eat, had babies, made clothing

    • Because women worked with plants, the beginnings of agriculture have been attributed to them

      The beginning of agriculture began the Neolithic Age


Neolithic age new stone
Neolithic Age (New Stone)

  • Began about 8,000 B.C.E. in the Near East

  • Shifted from just hunting and gathering to a settled agricultural way of life

    • Domesticated animals

    • Domesticated plants

    • Made pottery

    • Wove cloth from flax & wool

    • Cared for crops from planting to harvest



  • Neolithic societies began in:

    • Near East – around 8000 B.C.E. (wheat)

    • China - around 4000 B.C.E. (millet, rice)

    • India - around 5500 B.C.E. (wheat)

    • Americas - around 2500 B.C. E. (corn, beans, & squash)


Emergence of civilization 4000 1000 b c e
Emergence of Civilization4000-1000 B.C.E.

  • Mesopotamia in Tigris-Euphrates River Valley

  • Egypt in Nile River Valley

  • Indus River Valley Civilization in India

  • Yellow River Basin Civilization in China

    • All took form during the Bronze Age

    • All had urban centers, monumental architecture, hierarchical societies, & writing



Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia entertainment, & commercial centers

  • Emerged around 3500 to 3000 B.C.E.

  • First city was Sumer

    • Farming community

    • People worked together for survival

    • As more towns formed, there was a need for central control

    • A king became the central ruler

    • Writing system was cuneiform used for records and literature like Gilgamesh


Mesopotamia1
Mesopotamia entertainment, & commercial centers


Cuneiform
Cuneiform entertainment, & commercial centers


  • Religion entertainment, & commercial centers

    • Polytheistic

    • Gods of nature

    • People worked to keep gods happy

    • Life was harsh and gods seemed whimsical

    • This led to a pessimistic outlook on life and felt afterlife would be worse

    • Written about in Gilgamesh – prince is looking for immortality


Gilgamesh relief
Gilgamesh Relief entertainment, & commercial centers



Ziggurat at ur
Ziggurat at Ur there was a gradual separation of church and state


  • Sumer had basic elements of civilization: there was a gradual separation of church and state

    • Well-defined government

    • Hierarchical society

    • Regular economic surpluses

    • Trade, artisans, & merchants

    • Writing

    • Religion

    • Unified

      Lasted until about 2000 B.C.E.


Akkadian empire
Akkadian Empire there was a gradual separation of church and state

  • King Sargon I conquered Sumer and other city-states of Mesopotamia between 2370 and 2130 B.C.E. and created the Akkadian Empire

  • Introduced new language but kept cuneiform for records and literary works

  • Empire lasted only 200 years; overthrown by invaders

  • Sumerian city-states re-emerged until 2000 B.C.E.


Babylonian empire
Babylonian Empire there was a gradual separation of church and state

  • Established in early 18th century B.C.E. by Hammurabi and the Amorites when they unified Mesopotamia

  • Hammurabi

    • Seen as one of the greatest rulers of early civilizations

    • Brought order out of chaos

    • Had officials around his empire to carry out his laws

    • Codified his laws: The Code of Hammurabi


Hammurabi
Hammurabi there was a gradual separation of church and state


  • Code of Hammurabi there was a gradual separation of church and state

    • Listing of cases; what happens if…

    • Regulated the rights of the 3 Amorite classes: free people, state dependents, & slaves

    • Penalties differed according to social status: fines, corporal punishment, mutilation, & execution


Accomplishments of babylonians
Accomplishments of Babylonians there was a gradual separation of church and state

  • Extended Sumerian knowledge in astronomy & mathematics

  • Set up 60 minute hour & 360o circle

  • Expanded commerce

  • Used a common language

  • Built elaborate public buildings, royal palaces, & the hanging gardens



Egypt
Egypt from Central Asia

  • Emerged N.E. Africa around 3000 B.C.E.

  • Benefited from Mesopotamian technology and trade

  • Flourished for 2000 years but lasted for 3000 years

  • Located in fertile delta along the Nile River

  • Nile flooded at regular, predictable intervals

  • The silt left behind contributed to bountiful crops

  • Because of this, Egyptians felt they were pleasing their gods and so had an optimistic outlook


Egypt1
Egypt from Central Asia


  • Egypt was divided into 2 parts, upper and lower, until united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Its history has been divided into 3 Kingdoms

    • Old Kingdom 2575-2130 B.C.E

    • Middle Kingdom 1938-1600 B.C.E.

    • New Kingdom 1540-1075 B.C.E.

      There were times of instability between each period


  • Pharaohs united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Divine rulers who were to keep gods happy

    • Developed large bureaucracy of priests & officials

    • Local governors supervised irrigation and public works

    • Most Egyptians were peasant farmers who were supervised and heavily taxed; some built pyramids for pharaohs like Khufu at Giza


  • Religion united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Polytheistic for the most part

    • Amon-Re was the sun god who created the universe

    • Osiris was god of the Nile and offered the hope of immortality to masses

    • Pharaoh Amenhotep IV tried to create a monotheistic faith for his people


  • Writing united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Used for texts and records

    • Hieroglyphics - picture symbols

    • Wrote on papyrus made from plant of same name

    • Deciphered finally by a Frenchman named Jean-Francois Champollian using Rosetta Stone


Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


  • Science united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Established 12-month year with 3 10-day weeks

    • Had some working knowledge of some medicines and contraceptives

    • Knew how to mummify a body


  • Culture united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Virtually unchanged for thousands of years

    • stability and optimism reflected in their view of life and the afterlife

    • Static and stratified society

    • Fairly isolated


Indus civilization 2250 1750 b c e
Indus Civilization 2250-1750 B.C.E. united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Known as the Indus-Valley Culture or the Harappan Civilization

  • Lasted only a few centuries

  • This Indus culture was truly discovered in the 1920s at the Harappa site

  • Today there are 2 main sites Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro plus some smaller towns


Indus valley
Indus Valley united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


Gateway to harappa
Gateway to Harappa united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


Mohenjo daro
Mohenjo united by Narmer, the first pharaohDaro


  • They had united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Bronze tools

    • Large cities with similar lay-outs; population of 35,000+

    • Writing (not yet deciphered)

    • A diversified social and economic organization

      Having 2 cities that are so alike indicates a strong central government with good economic and communication systems


  • Each city had united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Walled citadel on raised platform to the west; contained main public buildings, large bath, and temples

    • town proper to the east laid out in a grid pattern

    • Each town had a granary, a cemetery, covered drains and sewers

    • House were built around a central courtyard with rooms facing inward; no windows


  • Economy based on agriculture united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Had cloth woven from cotton

  • Made metal tools

  • Used a potter’s wheel

  • It is believed there was trade between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia because Indus stamps have been found in Mesopotamia


  • Material culture united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Bronze and stone sculptures

    • Copper and bronze tools and vessels

    • Black on red painted pottery

    • Stone and terra cotta figurines

    • Toys

    • Silver vessels

    • Gold jewelry

    • Some decorative brick work




Aryans
Aryans united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Semi-nomadic invaders who reached India about 1800 B.C.E

  • They were horsemen, cattle-herders

  • They brought a new language, a new social organization, new techniques of warfare, and new religious ideas found in their Vedas, a sacred text

  • Patrilineal society


  • Gods were predominantly male united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Marriage was monogamous but polygamy did exist; widows could remarry

  • Tribes ruled by chieftain chosen for his military prowess

  • Originally there were 2 social classes:nobles and commoners

  • A third was later added: Dasas or darker conquered people


  • Later, 4 classes or varnas: united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Priestly Brahmans

    • Warrior nobles

    • Peasants and tradesmen

    • Servants

      Dasas were excluded

      This was a precursor to the rigid Indian caste system


  • Material culture: united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Semi-nomads who had little

    • Had gray painted pottery

    • Built wood, thatch, or mud-brick houses

    • Measured wealth in cattle

    • Were good at carpentry and bronze work

    • Used gold for ornamentation

    • Made cloth from wool


  • Planted grains united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Made and drank Soma, intoxicating drink used in religious ceremonies

  • Sang, danced, had chariot races, and gambled

  • Artisans made gold products, baskets, cloth, and pottery

  • Products found their way into Mesopotamia


  • Religion united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Polytheists

    • Gods resembled humans

    • Chief god was Indra, god of war and storm

    • Worship based on animal sacrifice or made offerings of food

    • Increasing formalism as the years passed

    • Not yet the concept of reincarnation or transmigration


China
China united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • 4000 B.C.E. agriculture began in the southern end of Yellow River

  • Raised millet, cabbage, rice, and soybeans

  • When soil was exhausted, the town would move

  • Used axes, hoes, spades, and sickle-shaped knives

  • Had domesticated pigs, sheep, cattle, dogs, and Chickens

  • Used pottery for storage

  • Lived in pit houses


  • Traditional history speaks of 3 ancient dynasties: united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Xia 2205 -1766 B.C.E.; founded by Yu who controlled the flooding with dikes and canals

    • Shang 1766-1050 B.C.E. ; conquered other tribes and laid foundation for Chinese civilization

    • Zhou 1050-256 B.C.E.


Shang dynasty
Shang Dynasty united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


Shang and zhou
Shang and Zhou united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


  • Shang united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Made up of warlike nomads

    • Military aristocracy went to war in chariots

    • Non-Shang subject people were the foot soldiers

    • Used spears and compound bows

    • Captured prisoners were enslaved

    • Ruled by hereditary kings with strong authority

    • Made sacrifices to their ancestors who interceded with the gods; also had human sacrifices


  • Had writing united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Had calendar with a month of 30 days and a year of 360 days; made adjustments periodically

  • Calendar told when to plant and when to harvest

  • Writing taught to those in bureaucracy

  • Bronze first used around 2000 B.C.E. and had advanced methods of casting

  • Used bronze for weapons, armor, chariot fittings, and ceremonial vessels


Shang bronze
Shang Bronze united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


  • Social Classes united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Stratifies society

    • Weapons in the hands of aristocrats

    • King and his court lived in a walled city in spacious houses with opulent lifestyle

    • Peasants lived outside the city in cramped pit houses, underground hovels



  • Zhou united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Continued Shang pattern of life and rule

    • Formed agrarian- based city-stae

    • Social hierarchy was similar to Shang

    • Zhou were backward people until they adopted Shang culture

    • Used Chinese ideographic writing

    • Cast bronze for ceremonial vessels


Zhou bronze
Zhou Bronze united by Narmer, the first pharaoh


  • Mandate from Heaven united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    • Explained why Zhou were ruling and not the Shang

    • Said the “deity above” was appalled by the Shang wickedness and had withdrawn their favor from the Shang and had given it to the Zhou

      Zhou Dynasty lasted until the late 3rd century B.C.E.


  • Zhou king was the head of the senior branch of the family united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • Other relatives ruled in outlying towns

  • King had a group of professional bureaucrats known as the “shi” – educated men who acted as clerks, scribes, overseers, and advisors

  • Practiced agriculture – mainly millet, wheat, and rice


  • Had irrigation and iron farm equipment united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • As the population expanded, so did their territory

  • Religion

    • Human sacrifice ended

    • Males became more dominant in the family


  • Manners were very important to the Zhou united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

    The rough nomads had become civilized

    By 8th century B.C.E., Zhou Dynasty was in decline. Control diminished. Rebellions occurred

    Out of this chaos came some of China’s greatest thinkers


Americas
Americas united by Narmer, the first pharaoh

  • 30,000 years ago, it is believed that Asians crossed over a frozen land bridge called Beringia, to follow herds of animals

  • They moved into the Americas going southward and to the east

  • They were hunters, gatherers, & fishermen

  • Found fish and small game to be plentiful

  • Grew maize, potatoes, squash, peppers, manioc, beans, & tomatoes



  • Olmecs Mesoamerica –the central part of Mexico and Central America

    • Earliest civilization

    • 2 centers: San Lorenzo 1200 – 900 B.C.E. And La Venta 900 – 400 B.C.E.

    • They had monumental structures and plazas

    • They had large sculptures


Olmec
Olmec Mesoamerica –the central part of Mexico and Central America


  • Andean Civilization Mesoamerica –the central part of Mexico and Central America

    • In South America

    • Farming was possible in coastal valleys near rivers

    • They also fished

    • Chavin de Huantar 800 – 200 B.C.E. emerged in highlands of Peru

      • Had pottery, textiles, & metals


Chavin region
Chavin Mesoamerica –the central part of Mexico and Central America Region


Chavin
Chavin Mesoamerica –the central part of Mexico and Central America




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