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The PECOS Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Satellites NSF Small Sat Conference 15 - 17 May 2007. O. de La Beaujardi è re, F. J. Rich, D. A. Cooke, J. Mozer, Space Weather Center of Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate L. C. Gentile

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The PECOS Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Satellites NSF Small Sat Conference 15 - 17 May 2007

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The pecos low earth orbit space weather satellites nsf small sat conference 15 17 may 2007

The PECOS Low Earth OrbitSpace Weather Satellites NSF Small Sat Conference 15 - 17 May 2007

O. de La Beaujardière, F. J. Rich, D. A. Cooke, J. Mozer,

Space Weather Center of Excellence

Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate

L. C. Gentile

Boston College Institute for Scientific Research


Pecos small leo swx sats overview

PECOS: Small LEO SWx SatsOverview

NPOESS

C/NOFS

DMSP

  • Introduction / rationale

  • DMSP / POES / NPOESS status

  • Proposed LEO constellation

    • Polar and Equatorial Comm/nav Outage Satellites (PECOS) for SWx needs in ionosphere and neutral atmosphere

    • Notional architecture based on small satellites in 3 different types of orbits

  • Mission study and challenge to science community

  • Conclusion


Introduction

Introduction

Actual Position

Predicted Position

  • Looming crisis in U.S. space weather capabilities

  • Space Environment SensorSuite (SESS) no longer on NPOESS

  • Last DMSP launch ~2012

  • AF Space Command, AFRL and others developing comprehensive plan to specify and forecast natural space environment in post-DMSP era

  • Recommendation: PECOS (Polar & Equatorial Comm/nav Outage Satellites) small LEO satellites to meet ionosphere / thermosphere SWx requirements and ensure continuity of DMSP capability


Rationale

Rationale

  • Air Force is responsible for DoD space weather

  • Understanding and forecasting space weather are key to ensuring SWx mission success

  • AF Space Command seeking funding in 2010 as ‘capability disconnect’

  • Objectives of proposed PECOS mission

    • Nowcast and forecast of ionosphere and thermosphere conditions

      • Provide tools for DoD and civilian systems for communication, navigation, surveillance

  • Coordinated effort by DoD and civilian agencies to meet U.S. space weather requirements

  • Transition from DMSP era to 21st century provides exciting opportunities for new technology development

    • Smaller satellites

    • Lighter payloads

    • Flexible launch options


Pecos small sats for swx

PECOSSmall Sats for SWx

Polar Cap

Scintillation

Polar Ionospheric

Disturbances

Mid-latitude

Scint & TEC

AFSATCOM

GPS

Equatorial

Ionospheric

Disturbances

Equatorial

Storm Effects

Scintillation

Forecasts

UFO & FLTSATCOM

Satellite

Drag

Magnetic

Equator

PECOS provides capability to specify and forecast ionospheric and thermospheric impacts on satellite systems.


Present capability dmsp orbits

Present CapabilityDMSP Orbits

DMSP

F15, 2112 LTAN

F16, 2003 LTAN

F14, 1926 LTAN

F13, 1828 LTAN

F17, 1736 LTAN

Primary

Back-Up

4 or 5 DMSP satellites on orbit at any time

LTAN = Local Time of Ascending Node @ Launch

As of Feb 07


The pecos low earth orbit space weather satellites nsf small sat conference 15 17 may 2007

TED

DPU

MEPED

DMSP and POES

Current SWx Sensors in Polar Orbit

Thermal Plasma Sensor

Space Environment Monitor (SEM-2)

Magnetometer

Auroral Particle Detector

Ultraviolet Disc Imager

Ultraviolet Limb Imager

DMSP Block 5D-3 (F16-20)

POES


The pecos low earth orbit space weather satellites nsf small sat conference 15 17 may 2007

TED

DPU

MEPED

Thermal Plasma Sensor

Space Environment Monitor (SEM)

Magnetometer

Auroral Particle Detector

Ultraviolet Disc Imager

Ultraviolet Limb Imager

Nunn-McCurdy Impact

Back

Side

SEM is the only Post-Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS SWx sensor


Pecos a proposed solution for swx

PECOS A Proposed Solutionfor SWx

  • PECOS is LEO mini-satellite constellation, 3 types of orbits

  • PECOS High -- Polar orbit, altitude ~ 800 km, sun synchronous

  • PECOS Low -- Polar orbit, low altitude < 350 km

  • PECOS Equator -- Equatorial orbit, low altitude

  • Objectives

    • Meet DoD priority requirements in ionospheric density, scintillation, and satellite drag

    • Meet NPOESS IORD I space environment Environmental Data Records (EDRs)

    • Maintain current DMSP capability to ensure long-term continuity of space environmental monitoring

    • Leverage new technology development for future operational systems

Large TEC plume disrupts

nav, comm, and

surveillance systems


Pecos high 1

PECOS High -1

GUVI

  • DMSP-type polar orbit: ~ 700 to 900 km altitude

  • Nominal 2-satellite constellation at ~ 14:30, 21:30 LT

  • Objective: achieve DMSP functions

  • Instruments:

    • Mini-UV spectrograph / imager(s)

      • Electron density

      • Neutral atmosphere composition (O/N2)

      • Auroral precipitation

      • Equatorial scintillation

    • Thermal plasma suite

      • Drift velocity, electric field

      • Temperatures Ti, Te

      • Electron density and density fluctuations


Pecos high 2

PECOS High - 2

  • Instruments (continued)

    • Magnetometer on short boom

      • Currents

      • Total electromagnetic energy

      • Penetration electric fields

    • Particle detectors

      • 20 eV - 10 MeV for electrons

      • 20 eV - 300 MeV for protons

    • Scintillation (DORIS) and GPS receiver

      • Electron density profile

      • Scintillation, comm/nav outages

  • Possible launch scenario:

    • 2 satellites on same Minotaur

    • Desired LT orbits reached after time and altitude change

  • Considering topside sounder on separate satellite (Tacsat 5)


Pecos low

PECOS Low

Actual Position

Predicted Position

  • Polar orbit ~300 km perigee

    • Elliptical (apogee ~400)

  • Primary objective:

    • Critical parameters for satellite drag

  • Secondary objectives:

    • Electron density profile

    • Scintillation

  • Instruments

    • Neutral wind monitor

    • Accelerometer

      • Thermospheric density

    • Mass spectrometer

      • Thermospheric composition

    • Thermal plasma suite

      • Drift velocity, electric field

      • Temperatures Ti, Te

      • Electron density and density fluctuations

~12800 LEO objects in catalog


Pecos equator

PECOS Equator

C/NOFS

  • Equatorial orbit (~13° inclination)

    • Apogee: ~700 km, Perigee: ~350 to 400 km

  • Objective: Forecast low-latitude comm / navoutages

    • C/NOFS follow-on

  • Instruments

    • Thermal plasma suite

      • Drift velocity

      • Temperatures Ti, Te

      • Electron density and density fluctuations

    • Neutral wind monitor

    • Planar Langmuir probe

      • Electron density, in situ irregularities

    • Scintillation (DORIS) and GPS receivers

      • Electron density

      • Scintillation, comm/nav outages

    • Electric and magnetic field suite

      • Electric field

      • Wave spectra

      • Plasma irregularities


Space environment monitoring concerns and options

Space Environment MonitoringConcerns and Options

Input from SWx community needed to optimize notional PECOS configuration

  • Constellation, orbit, payload (< 100 kg)

  • New instrument designs

    • Smaller in size, weight, power

    • Higher resolution measurements for more accurate specification

    • Operational systems must be based on proven technology

    • Need to demonstrate technology readiness

  • Standard small-sat bus and interface recommended for all PECOS spacecraft

    • AFRL Plug & Play satellites

    • Ball Aerospace SIV sats for STP

    • Other options

  • Adaptable launch configuration

    • ESPA ring

    • Minotaur

    • Other


Pecos proposed design study

PECOSProposed Design Study

GUVI

EPBs

End-to-end assessment of requirements: from space environment parameters to mission application

  • Systematic analysis of requirements and options to meet them

  • Operational analysis a critical component

  • Interagency team

  • Integrated approach leveraging data from other U.S. sources

  • Determine best strategy for operational and S & T development

    • Opportunity to demonstrate viability of new small-sat technologies

    • Proven technology required for operational systems


Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

  • AF is the responsible entity for DoD Space Weather

  • AFRL SWx CoE is taking a leadership role to resolve crisis

  • PECOS small sat system will meet DoD priority SWx requirements in ionosphere, scintillation and satellite drag

    • AFRL & AF Space Command studying possible architecture

      • 2 to 4 sats on PECOS HI orbit (DMSP type) (primary for ionosphere, secondary for thermosphere)

      • 1 or 2 sats on PECOS Low orbit (primary for thermosphere, secondary for ionosphere)

      • 1 sat on PECOS equator (C/NOFS follow on) (primary for scintillation, secondary for iono and thermo)

    • Mission development plan will define optimal configuration of orbits, instruments, models

    • Provides opportunity to leverage new technology development for sensors, spacecraft, launch options

  • Collaboration with NPOESS still needed

    • NPOESS ground segment will be a great asset

  • Interagency coordination and collaboration are essential

  • Plan urgently needed to ensure continuity of SWx monitoring in post-DMSP era

  • If nothing is done soon, U.S. risks loss of capability to build and maintain space environment instruments


Back up material

Back-up Material

GUVI

DMSP

C/NOFS

Jicamarca Radar, Peru – Oct 22, 1996


Dmsp pecos notional timeline

DMSP & PECOS Notional Timeline

DMSP

FY 07

FY 08

FY09

FY10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

FY18

FY19

FY20

FY21

F13

F14

F15

F16

F17

F18

F19

F20

C/NOFS

PECOS

C/NOFS ResOps

Lab Dev / SPO

PECOS-Eq-a

PECOS-Hi-a

PECOS-Lo-a

PECOS-Eq-b

PECOS-Hi-b

PECOS-Lo-b

Op S/C Extended-Op S/C Demo S/C SPO


Npoess and pecos

NPOESS and PECOS

  • Space Environment Sensor Suite (SESS) will not fly on NPOESS (outcome of Nunn-McCurdy review)

  • AF Space Command seeking funding in 2010 as ‘capability disconnect’

    • PECOS small satellites would cost less than NPOESS SESS

  • Concerns with re-incorporating two sensors on NPOESS

    • Integration costs might not be borne by NPOESS IPO

    • NPOESS survival not assured

    • Does not meet SWx requirements and warfighter needs

    • Space weather is not prime concern for NPOESS

  • Pre-Nunn-McCurdy SESS did not meet DoD SWx requirements

    • 2130 orbit, required for ionospheric scintillation, eliminated

    • Scintillation and magnetic field requirements not met

    • Electron density profile and neutral density profile marginal

  • Collaboration with NPOESS still needed

    • NPOESS ground segment will be a great asset

  • PECOS mission maintains long-term continuity of space environment monitoring for DoD SWx mission in post-DMSP era


Scintillation and ionospheric specification for comm nav surveillance

Scintillation and Ionospheric Specification for Comm/Nav/Surveillance

Plasma Density

  • Ionospheric density and irregularities affect DoD SSA mission

  • Accurate forecast and specification of ionospheric parameters needed for:

    • Communication

    • GPS Navigation

    • Surveillance

    • Geolocation

    • HF communication

    • Missile defense

Scintillation

AF Goal: 72-120 hour space weather forecast


Satellite drag and precision orbit determination

Satellite Drag and Precision Orbit Determination

Actual Position

Predicted Position

  • Thermosphere (non-ionized part of upper atmosphere) affects satellite drag and reentry

  • Accurate nowcast and forecast of thermospheric parameters needed for:

    • Precise satellite orbit determination

    • Avoidance of collisions with space debris

    • Satellite reentry prediction

    • Maintenance of space objects catalog (12800 objects)

    • Prediction of satellite positions

    • Mission planning support

      • Design of space systems for long-term operations

      • End-of-life plans

      • Fuel and station-keeping

    • AFSPC Goal, 90 - 500 km: 5% drag error, 500 - 700 km: 10% error


Drivers for satellite drag neutral density

Drivers for Satellite Drag/Neutral Density

Solar Wind

Interaction

  • Satellite drag is significant below 600 km

  • Thermospheric neutral density controlled by:

    • Solar EUV heating

    • Auroral heating (particles and electromagnetic energy)

    • Upward propagating waves from troposphere

  • Density variability at 400 km

    • Solar cycle: factor of 10 variation with EUV over 11 yr cycle

    • Day-to-day: ~10% variability

    • Storm events: Factor of 6 increase in a few hours


Present capability dmsp swx instruments and measurements

Present Capability DMSP SWx Instruments and Measurements

  • Precipitating Particle Sensor (SSJ5) – 30 eV to 30 keV

    • Auroral Boundaries and Energy Deposition

    • Electron Density Profile

  • Thermal Plasma Monitor (SSIES)

    • In Situ Electric Field

    • In Situ Plasma Density and Temperature

  • Magnetometer (SSM)

    • In Situ Field-Aligned Current  of Joule Heat Obs.

    • Global Geomagnetic Disturbance  Proxy for Dst Index

  • Extreme Ultraviolet Scanners / Photometers (SSUSI and SSULI)

    • Plasma Density (~200 to 600 km)

    • Auroral Energy Deposition & Auroral Boundary

    • Neutral Atmosphere Density and Composition

AFRL responsible for all DMSP SWxinstruments, except SSULI


Present capability dmsp schedule

Present CapabilityDMSP Schedule

FY07

FY08

FY09

FY10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

FY18

F15

F16

Expected Life

Guaranteed Life

F17

F18

F19

F20

  • DMSP F20 launch ~ 2012

  • NPOESS: 2013 for C1 launch

  • MetOp: A in 2006, B in 2010 (?)

FY15 is critical time to have new operational system in place; program planning should start in FY08


Complementary space instruments

Complementary Space Instruments

COSMIC

DMSP

  • Satellites / sensors presently on orbit

    • MetOp with SEM particle detector

    • JASON provides TEC above oceans

    • DMSP SWx sensors (while it lasts)

    • GRACE accelerometer

    • CHAMP accelerometer (while it lasts)

    • COSMIC

  • Planned satellite missions

    • NPOESS

      • Only SEM particle detectors (POES heritage) on one orbit

    • SWARM

      • 3-satellite constellation for solid Earth magnetic field measurements, but no SSA contribution

  • Proposed Missions

    • UV Imager at GEO orbit

    • COSMIC II with GPS, mini-UV and DORIS Rx


Complementary ground based instruments

Complementary Ground-Based Instruments

SCINDA Ground Stations (2008 plan)

30N

0

30S

0

240E

300E

330E

60E

90E

120E

210E

150E

270E

30E

DORIS UHF/S-Band Beacons at Ground Sites

United Nations IHY Sites

Supporting Sites

Backbone Sites

  • SCINDA sites

  • Coherent radars on a 24 / 7 basis

  • Ionosondes

  • All-sky cameras

  • GPS Rx

  • DORIS Tx

  • Ground magnetometers

  • Fabry-Perot Interferometers

  • Incoherent Scatter Radars for campaigns


Pecos development issues

PECOS Development Issues

  • Important technology progress expected in spacecraft design, instrumentation, interface, launch options

  • Community input needed to assess

    • Spacecraft design / size

    • Instrument miniaturization

    • Standard interface options

    • Optimum orbits

    • Life time on orbit

    • Launch options

    • Telemetry / Real-time data need

    • Software, models

    • Impact on warfighter needs

  • Balance cost / schedule / performance / technical risk

  • SWx requirements tied directly to mission applications

    • Systematic analysis from SWx measurements to operations


The pecos low earth orbit space weather satellites nsf small sat conference 15 17 may 2007

DMSP

C/NOFS


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