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Nervous System II: Development & Plasticity. Arvin Gouw Endocrinology Graduate Program. Nervous System Development. Endoderm: Gastrointestinal System Endocrine System Respiratory Tract Mesoderm: Immune System Muscular System Ectoderm: Integument Nervous System.

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Nervous system ii development plasticity

Nervous System II: Development & Plasticity

Arvin Gouw

Endocrinology Graduate Program


Nervous system development
Nervous System Development

  • Endoderm:

    • Gastrointestinal System

    • Endocrine System

    • Respiratory Tract

  • Mesoderm:

    • Immune System

    • Muscular System

  • Ectoderm:

    • Integument

    • Nervous System


Nervous system components i
Nervous System Components I

Astrocytes: star-shaped glial cells with the following functions:

  • involved in the physical structuring of the brain.

  • provide neurons with nutrients

  • form part of the blood-brain barrier.

  • Reuptake & recycle neurotransmitters


Nervous system component ii
Nervous System Component II

  • Oligodendrocytes: few tree cells. (Gk) type of neuroglia which myelinate axons in the Central Nervous System (CNS).

  • Neurons: are nerve cells electrically excitable cells that process and transmit information.


Neuron dogma
Neuron Dogma

  • Santiago Ramon y Cajal (Spanish Neurologist,1852-1934) wrote:

    • neurons were discrete cells that communicated with each other via specialized junctions, or spaces, between cells

    • No new neurons are produced in the adult brain.

      Thus neurogenesis was thought to happen only during development and to stop in adulthood.


Neurogenesis in adult brain
Neurogenesis in Adult Brain

  • However Fred Gage of Salk Institute discovered adult neurogenesis in mammalian nervous system.

  • In fact, neurogenesis in intact adult brain occurs in:

    • Hippocampus (related to memory and behavior)

    • cells lining the ventricles and the spinal canal, then migrating to olfactory bulb (OB)

  • Ischemia (interruption of blood flow to a brain region and loss of cells) leads to increased neurogenesis

  • Enriched environment and exercise may also induce increased neurogenesis


Where do the new neurons come from
Where do the new neurons come from ?

  • Adult neurogenesis phenomena leads one to ask where the new neurons come from. Studies have suggested:

    • Ependymal cells

    • Radial glia

    • Astrocytes

    • Oligodendrocytes

      If so, then does it mean that transdifferentiation from one type of cell to a different type of cell is possible?


Tsonis p a stem cells from differentiated cells mol interven 4 81 83 2004
Tsonis, P.A., Stem Cells from Differentiated Cells, Mol. Interven., 4, 81-83, 2004

  • From newt amputated limb, terminally differentiated cells de-differentiate by losing their original characteristics. This de-differentiation produces blastema cells that then re-differentiate to reconstitute the lost limb.

  • After lentectomy de-differentiated cells lose pigment and regenerate a perfect lens.

  • De-differentiated myotubes produce mesenchymal progenitor cells that are able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts.


How is transdifferentiation possible ?

Common ectodermic derivation of neurons and neuroglia

Neural Epithelium

Neuroblast Spongioblast

Neuron Migratory Spongioblast Astrocyte Ependyma

Oligodendrocyte Astrocyte


“Activated” astrocyte

Proliferating astrocytes

Astrocyte

Neuroblast

migrate

From: Doetsch, F., et al., Neuron, 36:1021, 2002.


Why is transdifferentiation important
Why is transdifferentiation important?

  • If we can induce transdifferentiation in the nervous system from neuroglia into neurons, then we can possibly relieve neurodegenerative diseases such as:

    • Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Parkinson’s Disease

    • Huntington’s Disease

    • Any other neurodegenerative diseases


How should one induce transdifferentiation
How should one induce transdifferentiation?

  • Since brain injuries have been known to cause adult neurogenesis and transdifferentiation of astrocytes into neurons, we can study what happens in vivo.

  • In vivo, many chemicals are released following trauma, including:

    • Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    • Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)

    • etc


Egf fgf
EGF & FGF

  • Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    • Mitogenic protein is involved in mechanisms such as normal cell growth, oncogenesis, and wound healing. Binds to EGFR on cell surface eventually stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation

  • Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)

    • Responsible for growth and differentiation of numerous cell types and stimulation of neuronal proliferation.



2’3’-Cyclic Nucleotide

3’-Phosphohydrolase

Glutamine Synthetase

Enzyme Activities in Astrocytes & Oligodendrocytes


  • From:

  • Proliferation

  • Maturation

  • To:

  • Proliferation

  • De-differentiation


Astrocytes 14 days of treatment
Astrocytes: 14 Days of Treatment activity, a general trend can be seen in which the neuroglia are shifting:

Untreated neuroglia EGF (50ng/mL) FGF (80 ng/mL)

  • NeuN = Neuron Specific Nuclear Protein

  • DAPI = stains the nuclei blue

  • Untreated neuroglia lack NeuN, but EGF and FGF treated cells express the neuronal protein.


Oligodendrocytes 14 days of treatment
Oligodendrocytes: 14 Days of Treatment activity, a general trend can be seen in which the neuroglia are shifting:

Untreated neuroglia EGF (50ng/mL) FGF (80 ng/mL)

  • Nestin = Intermediate filament protein in neurons

  • Presence of Nestin in EGF and FGF treated cells and lack of neuronal protein in untreated neuroglia.


Learning at all Ages Induces Successful Aging activity, a general trend can be seen in which the neuroglia are shifting:


Observation in sisters of notre dame
Observation in Sisters of Notre Dame activity, a general trend can be seen in which the neuroglia are shifting:

  • The nuns were highly involved in teaching and studying well till old age, and they have been shown to live longer (75-104 yrs old), avoiding the Alzheimer’s Disease.

  • “Aging With Grace: What the Nun Study Teaches Us About Leading Longer, Healthier, and More Meaningful Lives” (paperback). By David Snowdon. Bantam 2002.


Death Rates in 1986 among Persons 25- 64 Years Old in Selected Education and Income Groups According to Race and Sex.

________________________________________________________

GroupWhite Black

Men Women Men Women

deaths per 1000

Education- yr

Completed

School

0-11 7.6 3.4 13.4 6.2

12 4.3 2.5 8.0 3.9

College

1-3 4.3 2.1 5.0 3.2

4 2.8 1.8 6.0 2.2

Income-$

<9,000 16.0 6.5 19.5 7.6

9,000-14,999 10.2 3.4 10.8 4.5

15,000-18,999 5.7 3.3 9.8 3.7

19,000-24,999 4.6 3.0 4.7 2.8

>25,000 2.4 1.6 3.6 2.3

______________________________________________________________________________________

Pappas, G., Queen, S., Hadden, W., and Fisher, G. The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. N. Engl. J Med. 329, 103-109, 1993.


Better access to medical care Selected Education and Income Groups According to Race and Sex.

Better access to recreational activity

Better nutrition

Higher income

Responsibility to health behaviors

No alcohol intake

Increased brain reserve capacity?

More dendritic branching, cortical synapses?;

Better cerebral blood flow?;

Better neural cell efficiency, adaptability, redundancy, survival and growth

Mechanisms of Education Effects

No smoking


Anatomical Correlates of Educational Protective Effects* Selected Education and Income Groups According to Race and Sex.

Educational Level Increasing levels from <12 to >12

grades

Anatomical Correlate total dendritic length

mean dendritic length

dendritic segment count

Location Pyramidal cells in layer 2,3 of Wernicke’s area

Variable Studied Gender

Hemisphere

Education

Personal history

Hormonal Correlate

Thyroid Hormones dendritic number and length

Glucocorticoids reactive synaptogenesis

______________

* From Jacobs et al., J Comp. Nuerol., 327, 97, 1993


Neural plasticity
Neural Plasticity Selected Education and Income Groups According to Race and Sex.

  • Thus the nervous system is much more plastic than previously thought.

  • Better knowledge of factors regulating prenatal brain development may be useful in understanding post-natal potential plasticity and neurogenesis.


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