Unit 43
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Unit 43. Nervous System. Objectives. Spell and define terms. State the location and functions of the organs of the nervous system. List five diagnostic tests used to determine conditions of the nervous system. Objectives. Describe fifteen common conditions of the nervous system.

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Unit 43

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Unit 43

Unit 43

Nervous System


Objectives

Objectives

  • Spell and define terms.

  • State the location and functions of the organs of the nervous system.

  • List five diagnostic tests used to determine conditions of the nervous system.


Objectives1

Objectives

  • Describe fifteen common conditions of the nervous system.

  • Describe nursing assistant actions related to the care of patients with conditions of the nervous system.


Objectives2

Objectives

  • Explain the proper care, handling, and insertion of an artificial eye.

  • Explain the proper care, handling, and insertion of a hearing aid.


Structure and function

Structure and Function

  • Nervous system

    • Controls and coordinates all body activities, including the production of hormones

  • Special parts of the nervous system

    • Concerned with maintaining normal day-to-day functions


Structure and function1

Structure and Function

  • Other parts act during emergency situations

  • Still others control voluntary activities


Structure and function2

Structure and Function

  • Neurological conditions require highly specialized nursing care

    • You will assist with the less technical aspects of this care


Common conditions

Common Conditions

  • Nervous system usually remains healthy

  • Injury or disease to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves requires appropriate treatment


Cerebrovascular accident

Cerebrovascular Accident

  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke)

  • Occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted

    • Usually as a result of a blood clot blocking a vessel

    • Rupture of a blood vessel

    • Spilling blood into the brain


Cerebrovascular accident1

Cerebrovascular Accident

  • Hemiparesis (weakness)

  • Hemiplegia (paralysis)

    • Develop on the opposite side from the area of the brain where the stroke occurred


Cerebrovascular accident2

Cerebrovascular Accident

  • You will notice a difference when comparing both sides of the body

    • From head to foot

  • Refer to Figure 43 - 12A and Figure 43-12B


Cerebrovascular accident3

Cerebrovascular Accident


Cerebrovascular accident4

Cerebrovascular Accident

  • Cerebrovascular accident

    • Leading cause of disability in the U.S.

  • Getting rapid treatment is essential

    • This prevents further damage to the brain


Cerebrovascular accident5

Cerebrovascular Accident

  • About 80 percent of strokes are ischemic

    • A clot blocks a blood vessel

  • About 15 percent are bleeding (hemorrhagic)

    • A vessel ruptures


Transient ischemic attack

Transient Ischemic Attack

  • A transient ischemic attack (TIA)

    • Temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain

    • Usually lasts 2 to 15 minutes

      • May last as long as 24 hours


Transient ischemic attack1

Transient Ischemic Attack

  • Signs and symptoms are similar to those of strokes

    • Patient usually makes a complete recovery

    • Patient is at risk for stroke in the future

    • ABCD Stroke Scale helps predict stroke risk


Abcd stroke scale

ABCD Stroke Scale


Abcd stroke scale1

ABCD Stroke Scale


Abcd stroke scale2

ABCD Stroke Scale

  • Risk of stroke within seven days of a TIA:

    ScoreRisk

    1-30.0%

    4 1.1%

    512.1%

    6 31.4%

    (Rothwell PM, Giles MF, Flossmann E, et al. A simple score (ABCD) to identify individuals at high early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack. Lancet. 2005;366:29‑36.)


Paralysis

Paralysis

  • Many neurologic conditions cause paralysis

    • Usually caused by a spinal cord injury in which sensation and function are lost or impaired below the level of injury.


Paralysis1

Paralysis

  • Lesion

    • Alteration or change in tissue

    • Damage to the spinal cord


Paralysis2

Paralysis

  • Terms used to describe paralysis are:

    • Diplegia

      • Paralysis affecting the same region on both sides of the body (such as both arms)

    • Hemiplegia

      • Paralysis on one entire side of the body (such as the arm and leg)


Paralysis3

Paralysis

  • Terms used to describe paralysis are:

    • Monoplegia

      • Paralysis affecting one limb only

    • Paraplegia

      • Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the waist) and both legs


Paralysis4

Paralysis

  • Terms used to describe paralysis are:

    • Quadriplegia

      • Paralysis of the trunk (usually below the neck), both arms, and both legs

    • Tetraplegia

      • Another term for quadriplegia

      • Use of this word is encouraged, instead of using quadriplegia


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