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CHAPTER 1* Introduction: Matter and Measurement. Suh Kwon. 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry. The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry Matter = physical material of the universe that has mass and occupies space Element = substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

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Chapter 1 introduction matter and measurement

CHAPTER 1*Introduction: Matter and Measurement

Suh Kwon


1 1 the study of chemistry
1.1 – The Study of Chemistry

  • The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry

    • Matter = physical material of the universe that has mass and occupies space

    • Element = substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

    • Atom = almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter

    • Molecules = chemical combination of two ore more atoms



  • Pure Substances and Mixtures

    • Pure Substance(referred to as a substance)= matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties

      • Classified as either ..

        • Elements (composed of only one kind of atom)

        • Compounds (composed of two ore more elements)

    • Mixture = combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity and its own properties; compositions vary

      • Heterogeneous = do not have the same composition, properties, and appearance throughout the mixtures (Ex: sand, rocks, and wood)

      • Homogeneous = uniform throughout the mixtures(Ex: air, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc)


  • Separation of Mixtures

    • Filtration (for heterogeneous mixtures)

      • Ex: to separate iron filings from gold ones, use a magnet to attract the iron

    • Distillation (for homogeneous mixtures)

      • Ex: to separate salt from water, boil the solution; thus, water will evaporate while the salt is left behind because water has a much lower boiling point than table salt

    • Chromatography 

https://www.crimescene.com/store/bmz_cache/b/b3ac10ad9721f4d3399d6f4b82111806.image.220x223.jpg*


1 3 properties of matter
1.3 – Properties of Matter

  • Physical properties = w/o changing identity and composition; (color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness)

    • Ex: When water evaporates, it changes from liquid to gas; however, its composition does not change; it is still water

  • Chemical properties = substance that may change or react to form other substances

    • Ex: Flammability, which is the ability to burn a substance in the presence of oxygen, transforms one substance into a chemically different one

  • Intensive properties = does not depend on the amount of the sample being examined; (temperature, melting point, and density)

  • Extensive properties = depend on the quantity and amount of the sample; (measurements of mass and volume)



  • Derived SI Units

    • Density = mass

      volume

       Practice Problem!!:

      ** Calculate the density of mercury if 1.00 x 102 g occupies a volume of 7.36 cm3.

      (Answer)

      Density = mass = 1.00 x 102 g = 13.6 g/cm3

      volume 7.36 cm3


1 5 uncertainty in measurement
1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement

  • Precision and Accuracy

    • Precision = a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another

    • Accuracy = how closely individual measurements agree with the correct, or “true” value

http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/magazine/tct/accuracy_vs_precision_556.jpg*


  • Significant Figures

    • Guidelines to determine the number of sig. figures:

      • Nonzero digits are always significant

        (214= THREE significant figures)

      • Zeros between nonzero digits are always significant

        (1004 = FOUR significant figures)

      • Zeros at the beginning of a number are never significant

        (0.01 = ONE significant figure)

      • Zeros that fall both at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always significant

        (4.0 = TWO significant figures)


  • Significant Figures in Calculations

    • Multiplication and Division: the result must be reported with the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant figures

    • Addition and Subtraction: the result cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers


1 6 dimensional analysis
1.6 – Dimensional Analysis

  • Conversion factor

    • given unit x desired unit = desired unit

      given unit

       Example:

      *Converting 8.00 meters to inches

      8.00 m x 100 cm x 1 in. = 315 inches

      1 m 2.54 cm


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