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CHAPTER 1* Introduction: Matter and Measurement. Suh Kwon. 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry. The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry Matter = physical material of the universe that has mass and occupies space Element = substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

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1 1 the study of chemistry
1.1 – The Study of Chemistry
  • The Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
    • Matter = physical material of the universe that has mass and occupies space
    • Element = substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
    • Atom = almost infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
    • Molecules = chemical combination of two ore more atoms
slide4

Pure Substances and Mixtures

    • Pure Substance(referred to as a substance)= matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties
      • Classified as either ..
        • Elements (composed of only one kind of atom)
        • Compounds (composed of two ore more elements)
    • Mixture = combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity and its own properties; compositions vary
      • Heterogeneous = do not have the same composition, properties, and appearance throughout the mixtures (Ex: sand, rocks, and wood)
      • Homogeneous = uniform throughout the mixtures(Ex: air, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc)
slide5

Separation of Mixtures

    • Filtration (for heterogeneous mixtures)
      • Ex: to separate iron filings from gold ones, use a magnet to attract the iron
    • Distillation (for homogeneous mixtures)
      • Ex: to separate salt from water, boil the solution; thus, water will evaporate while the salt is left behind because water has a much lower boiling point than table salt
    • Chromatography 

https://www.crimescene.com/store/bmz_cache/b/b3ac10ad9721f4d3399d6f4b82111806.image.220x223.jpg*

1 3 properties of matter
1.3 – Properties of Matter
  • Physical properties = w/o changing identity and composition; (color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and hardness)
    • Ex: When water evaporates, it changes from liquid to gas; however, its composition does not change; it is still water
  • Chemical properties = substance that may change or react to form other substances
    • Ex: Flammability, which is the ability to burn a substance in the presence of oxygen, transforms one substance into a chemically different one
  • Intensive properties = does not depend on the amount of the sample being examined; (temperature, melting point, and density)
  • Extensive properties = depend on the quantity and amount of the sample; (measurements of mass and volume)
slide8

Derived SI Units

    • Density = mass

volume

 Practice Problem!!:

** Calculate the density of mercury if 1.00 x 102 g occupies a volume of 7.36 cm3.

(Answer)

Density = mass = 1.00 x 102 g = 13.6 g/cm3

volume 7.36 cm3

1 5 uncertainty in measurement
1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement
  • Precision and Accuracy
    • Precision = a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
    • Accuracy = how closely individual measurements agree with the correct, or “true” value

http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/magazine/tct/accuracy_vs_precision_556.jpg*

slide10

Significant Figures

    • Guidelines to determine the number of sig. figures:
      • Nonzero digits are always significant

(214= THREE significant figures)

      • Zeros between nonzero digits are always significant

(1004 = FOUR significant figures)

      • Zeros at the beginning of a number are never significant

(0.01 = ONE significant figure)

      • Zeros that fall both at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always significant

(4.0 = TWO significant figures)

slide11

Significant Figures in Calculations

    • Multiplication and Division: the result must be reported with the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant figures
    • Addition and Subtraction: the result cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers
1 6 dimensional analysis
1.6 – Dimensional Analysis
  • Conversion factor
    • given unit x desired unit = desired unit

given unit

 Example:

*Converting 8.00 meters to inches

8.00 m x 100 cm x 1 in. = 315 inches

1 m 2.54 cm

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