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The Civil War. Please have the Johnny Reb , Billy Yank article and your chart out on your desk. Two Sides. Union/North/blue . Confederacy/south/gray. Capital: Washington D.C. President: Abraham Lincoln Significant Generals: George McClellan Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman.

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Please have the Johnny Reb, Billy Yank article and your chart out on your desk.


Two sides
Two Sides

Union/North/blue

Confederacy/south/gray

  • Capital: Washington D.C.

  • President: Abraham Lincoln

  • Significant Generals:

    • George McClellan

    • Ulysses S. Grant

    • William T. Sherman

  • Capital: Richmond, VA

  • President: Jefferson Davis

  • Significant Generals:

    • Robert E. Lee

    • Stonewall Jackson


Army size
Army Size

Union

Confederacy

  • 959,640 troops by end of war

  • Yankees

  • 445,203 troops by end of war

  • Rebels


Border states
Border States

  • All have strategic locations

  • Missouri controls part of MS River

  • Kentucky controlled Ohio River

  • Maryland surrounds D.C.


Lincoln s controversial move
Lincoln’s Controversial Move

  • Worried about Maryland

  • Arrested those who supported secession

  • Suspends Habeas Corpus

    • Being told what you are accused of.

  • 1862 – suspends nationwide

  • "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.” – Article I, Section 9


What other limitations on liberties occurred during the war
What other limitations on liberties occurred during the war?

  • Proclaimed a blockade without the approval of Congress.

  • Increased size of Federal army (only Congress can do this).

  • Directed Secretary of Treasury to advance $2 million to three private citizens for military purposes

  • “Supervised” voting in border states – intimidation

  • Suspension of certain newspapers, arrested editors


Suspension of wartime liberties
Suspension of Wartime Liberties

  • How does Lincoln defend himself?

    • Congress generally accepted or confirmed what he was doing.

    • A man suffering from “temporary illness” will not keep taking medicine for the remainder of his healthy life.


The draft
The Draft…

  • North: volunteers at first, with each state having a quota to meet.

  • 1863 – federal conscription law (first time ever on a national scale).

  • South: volunteers (all ages), then draft in 1862

  • “Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight” – why?

    • Hire a substitute

    • Purchase exemption for $300

    • South – for every 20 slaves, one white exemption


Draft riots
Draft Riots

  • New York – Democratic stronghold – 1863

  • Started by poor, anti-black Irish-Americans

  • Initial targets: government buildings

  • Mob violence grows and attacks black people and anything associated with them (including an orphanage)

  • Estimated 24-100 killed

  • Over $1.5 million in property damage


Paying for the war north
Paying for the War - North

  • Increase excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol.

  • Income tax – first time in nation’s history.

  • Morrill Tariff Act

    • Increased duties 5-10%

  • Tariff rates increased as the war went on.

  • Issued “greenbacks” – paper money

    • Around $450 million at face value

    • Value determined by nation’s credit

    • Slow inflation – money decreased in value.

  • Borrowing

    • Sale of bonds


Paying for war north
Paying for War - North

  • National Banking System

    • Stimulate sale of government bonds

    • Establish a standard bank-note currency

  • Banks that joined could buy gov’t bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them.

  • First significant step toward unified banking network since 1836 when 2nd BUS was killed by AJ

  • Will be replaced by Federal Reserve in 1913.


Paying for war south
Paying for War - South

  • Blockade

  • Confederate bonds sold abroad and at home

  • Increase in taxes

  • 10% tax on farm produce

  • States’ righters generally opposed to heavy direct taxation

  • So….printing of blue-backed paper money

    • Runaway inflation

    • 9,000% inflation rate



Economic effects north
Economic Effects - North War?

  • General prosperity

  • New factories (protective tariff)

  • Millionaire class

    • Speculation and graft

  • Sewing machine

    • Standardized sizes

  • Surplus of grain

    • Mechanical reaper

    • Dethroning of King Cotton

  • Discovery of petroleum oil

  • Industry that did suffer - shipping


Economic effects south
Economic Effects - South War?

  • Suffocation from blockade

  • 30% of wealth  12% of wealth

  • Destruction by union army

    • Transportation collapsed

    • ½ of livestock killed

    • 1/3 farm machinery destroyed

  • Many refugees (white and black)

  • Ultimately, cotton was not king


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