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French Baroque. 1660 - 1715. Portrait de Louis XIV, 1701 Hyacinthe Rigaud. developed a French national style as part of political program high-heeled shoes, flowing wig, heavy draperies, gold—all signs of powerful monarch using everything at his control to make a strong impression.

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french baroque

French Baroque

1660 - 1715

slide2

Portrait de Louis XIV, 1701

HyacintheRigaud

  • developed a French national style as part of political program
  • high-heeled shoes, flowing wig, heavy draperies, gold—all signs of powerful monarch
  • using everything at his control to make a strong impression
slide3

instinct for impressive poses and grand presentations suited the tastes of those who sat for him

  • captured very exact likenesses along with the subject\'s costumes and background details
  • paintings are considered precise records of contemporary fashions
chateau of vaux le vicomte

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte

near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

(for M. Fouguet)

slide5

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

collaboration marked beginning of new order: the manner associated with "Louis XIV style“

slide6

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

involves a system of collective work, applied to structure, interiors, works of art and creation of entire landscape

slide8

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

  • forerunner to Versailles—design elements first experimented with
palace of versailles

Palace of Versailles

Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.

slide10

garden\'s use of a baroque axis that extends to infinity

when the château was built, Versailles was a country village

slide11

wanted site where he could organize and completely control government of France by absolute personal rule—required nobles spend time each year at Versailles, preventing them from developing their own regional power

slide12

the court of Versailles was the center of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789

slide14

Versailles at the end of Louis XIV’s fourth building campaign

36,000 workers labored to create a place that eventually housed 100,000 people

slide15

Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.

slide16

Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.

LeVau’s design for state apartments closely followed Italian models of the day, as evidenced by the placement of the apartments on the piano nobile—borrowed from 16th and 17th century Italian palace design

slide19

Le Vau’s plan called for an enfilade of seven rooms, each dedicated to one of the then-known planets and their associated Roman deity

Queen’s Staircase and the Ambassador’s Staircase

salon d’Apollon originally designed as king’s bedchamber, but served as a throne room

slide21

French en filade

axis and control

  • a visitor\'s rank was indicated by how far he could get
  • most apartments began with a hall for the guards and concluded with a state bedchamber and a closet, with other more private rooms beyond
  • in between were antechambers used for eating and rooms for holding audiences
slide22

The Ambassadors’ staircase, Versaille

rooms were decorated by Charles LeBrun-- studied with the famed Tuscan artist Pietro daCortona (Pitti Palace)

slide26

Queen’s Staircase Palace of Versailles

1661-1715, by Charles LeBrun

slide27

Salon du Paix (Salon of Peace)

used stucco, gilding, and paint to create illusionistic scenes on walls and ceilings

slide29

Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)

built by Francois Mansart between 1678-1687, a marvel of architecture, beauty, and intimidation—foreign ambassadors walked from the south end of the hall to the north where Louis would be waiting

slide30

mirrors were among the most expensive items to possess at the time

Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)

slide31

represents military victories of Louis XIV

Mansart’s refashioning marks the beginning of a Rococo sensibility

slide32

Salon Oeil de Boeuf

(Room of the Bull’s Eye Window)

parquetry

slide36

Fauteuil, c. 1690 Carved wood

leans backward

tapestry upholstery

owes overall form to Renaissance—but becomes more complicated in form, position and decoration

square tapered legs

s-scrolls

slide37

arms curve both horizontally and vertically

  • richly carved and decorated
  • stretchers no longer straight rails—turned, curved and decorated
  • dynamic—appears as if it could move
slide38

Chaise

X stretcher

H stretcher

slide39

tabourets = stools

tabouret de grace = stool of grace

tabouret d’un seulfois = stool for one time

slide40

André-Charles Boulle, French, Paris, about 1678 - 1680oak veneered with ebony, pewter, tortoiseshell, pewter, brass, ivory, horn, and various woods; with drawers of snake wood; painted and gilded wood figures; bronze mounts

slide41

Court Furniture by Andre-Charles Boulle, master cabinet-maker (maitre ebeniste) to Louis XIV

ebenist—pinnacle of hierarchy of furniture makers

ormolu—gilded bronze ornaments attached to furniture

slide42

Andre-Charles Boulle, Paris, c. 1680 - 1685walnut veneered with brass, pewter, tortoiseshell, and ebony; gilt bronze

slide44

Experts disagree about who created this piece. It is listed here as having been crafted by Boulle. Though more notably recognized for his brass inlay marquetry, this piece contains exotic wood inlays, tortoiseshell, pewter and brass set in an ebony veneer. It is likely the caryatids and gilt bronze mounts were added at a later date. The caryatids represent Autumn and Summer. The medallion in the upper center bears the resemblance to Louis XIV, "the Sun King".

Andre Boulle

Mid-Late 1600s

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