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French Baroque. 1660 - 1715. Portrait de Louis XIV, 1701 Hyacinthe Rigaud. developed a French national style as part of political program high-heeled shoes, flowing wig, heavy draperies, gold—all signs of powerful monarch using everything at his control to make a strong impression.

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French baroque

French Baroque

1660 - 1715


Portrait de Louis XIV, 1701

HyacintheRigaud

  • developed a French national style as part of political program

  • high-heeled shoes, flowing wig, heavy draperies, gold—all signs of powerful monarch

  • using everything at his control to make a strong impression



Chateau of vaux le vicomte

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte the tastes of those who sat for him

near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

(for M. Fouguet)


Chateau of Vaux-le- the tastes of those who sat for himVicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

collaboration marked beginning of new order: the manner associated with "Louis XIV style“


Chateau of Vaux-le- the tastes of those who sat for himVicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

involves a system of collective work, applied to structure, interiors, works of art and creation of entire landscape


Chateau of Vaux-le- the tastes of those who sat for himVicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre


Chateau of Vaux-le- the tastes of those who sat for himVicomte, near Paris by Louis Le Vau, Charles LeBrun, Andre LeNotre

  • forerunner to Versailles—design elements first experimented with


Palace of versailles

Palace of Versailles the tastes of those who sat for him

Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.


garden's use of a baroque axis that extends to infinity the tastes of those who sat for him

when the château was built, Versailles was a country village


wanted site where he could organize and completely control government of France by absolute personal rule—required nobles spend time each year at Versailles, preventing them from developing their own regional power


the court of Versailles was the center of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789



Versailles at the end of Louis XIV’s fourth building campaign

36,000 workers labored to create a place that eventually housed 100,000 people


Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.


Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV’s Building campaign: 1661-1715, by LeBrun, LeVau, LeNotre, & J.H. Mansart.

LeVau’s design for state apartments closely followed Italian models of the day, as evidenced by the placement of the apartments on the piano nobile—borrowed from 16th and 17th century Italian palace design


Le 1661-1715, by Vau’s plan called for an enfilade of seven rooms, each dedicated to one of the then-known planets and their associated Roman deity

Queen’s Staircase and the Ambassador’s Staircase

salon d’Apollon originally designed as king’s bedchamber, but served as a throne room


boiserie 1661-1715, by —carved, gilded wood panelling

Motif of the Sun King


French 1661-1715, by en filade

axis and control

  • a visitor's rank was indicated by how far he could get

  • most apartments began with a hall for the guards and concluded with a state bedchamber and a closet, with other more private rooms beyond

  • in between were antechambers used for eating and rooms for holding audiences


The Ambassadors’ staircase, 1661-1715, by Versaille

rooms were decorated by Charles LeBrun-- studied with the famed Tuscan artist Pietro daCortona (Pitti Palace)



Queen’s Staircase Palace of Versailles to the French court

1661-1715, by Charles LeBrun


Salon du to the French courtPaix (Salon of Peace)

used stucco, gilding, and paint to create illusionistic scenes on walls and ceilings


Salon du Guerre to the French court (Salon of War)


Galerie to the French court des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)

built by Francois Mansart between 1678-1687, a marvel of architecture, beauty, and intimidation—foreign ambassadors walked from the south end of the hall to the north where Louis would be waiting


mirrors were among the most expensive items to possess at the time

Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)


represents military victories of Louis XIV the time

Mansart’s refashioning marks the beginning of a Rococo sensibility


Salon Oeil de Boeuf the time

(Room of the Bull’s Eye Window)

parquetry



Lit de parade— the timewhat is the counterpoint?


French baroque furniture

French Baroque Furniture the time

1660s-1715


Fauteuil the time, c. 1690 Carved wood

leans backward

tapestry upholstery

owes overall form to Renaissance—but becomes more complicated in form, position and decoration

square tapered legs

s-scrolls



Chaise the time

X stretcher

H stretcher


tabourets the time = stools

tabouret de grace = stool of grace

tabouret d’un seulfois = stool for one time


André-Charles the timeBoulle, French, Paris, about 1678 - 1680oak veneered with ebony, pewter, tortoiseshell, pewter, brass, ivory, horn, and various woods; with drawers of snake wood; painted and gilded wood figures; bronze mounts


Court Furniture by Andre-Charles the timeBoulle, master cabinet-maker (maitre ebeniste) to Louis XIV

ebenist—pinnacle of hierarchy of furniture makers

ormolu—gilded bronze ornaments attached to furniture


Andre-Charles the timeBoulle, Paris, c. 1680 - 1685walnut veneered with brass, pewter, tortoiseshell, and ebony; gilt bronze


Bureau Mazarin, Andre the timeBoulle, c. 1690, ebony and brass


Experts disagree about who created this piece. It is listed here as having been crafted by Boulle. Though more notably recognized for his brass inlay marquetry, this piece contains exotic wood inlays, tortoiseshell, pewter and brass set in an ebony veneer. It is likely the caryatids and gilt bronze mounts were added at a later date. The caryatids represent Autumn and Summer. The medallion in the upper center bears the resemblance to Louis XIV, "the Sun King".

Andre Boulle

Mid-Late 1600s


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